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Table of Content

    20 February 2015, Volume 24 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Basic Study
    The effect of fluoride on the expression of GRP-78 and caspase-12 in rat ameloblast
    LI Jian,ZHANG Ying,MA Lin,ZHANG Kai-qiang,LEI Shuang,GU He-feng
    2015, 24 (1):  1-5. 
    Abstract ( 285 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (672KB) ( 184 )  
    PURPOSE: To study the effect of GRP-78 and caspase-12 on fluoride-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in rat ameloblast, and explore whether fluoride-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress results in the occurrence of apoptosis. METHODS: The cell activity of ameloblast cultured in various concentrations of fluoride was measured by CCK8 and flow cytometry; Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot were used to analyze the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone GRP-78 and caspase-12 genes and the expression of related proteins. The data was analyzed with SPSS13.0 software package. RESULTS: With the increasing concentration of fluoride, the cell activity of rat ameloblasts decreased gradually, and flow cytometry also showed that the number of apoptosis gradually increased; Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot showed the expression of GRP-78 and caspase-12 increased while the fluoride concentration increased. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive fluoride induces endoplasmic reticulum stress of rat ameloblast, and leads to cell apoptosis.
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    Expression of TRPV1 and CGRP in rat trigeminal ganglion during orthodontic tooth movement
    ZHANG Cai-di,TENG Rui,LU Zhen,QIAO Hu,QIAN Tian,ZHOU Hong
    2015, 24 (1):  6-7. 
    Abstract ( 259 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (1045KB) ( 340 )  
    PURPOSE: Sprague-Dawley rat models of tooth movement were established to investigate the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) in rat trigeminal ganglion during orthodontic tooth movement, and to explore the roles of TRPV1 and CGRP in orthodontic pain. METHODS: Sixty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group (n=6), sham operation group (n=6), and experimental group (n=54). Tooth movement models were established, orthodontic force (50 g) was applied on the maxillary first molar in the rats of experimental group, and then the trigeminal ganglia were collected at 4, 8 h, 1 d (3 subgroups were set up according to the force: 1 d-30 g, 1 d-50 g, 1 d-80 g), 3, 5, 7, 14 d after tooth movement. The changes of TRPV1 and CGRP expression were detected by immunofluorescence staining. SPSS16.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: According to immunofluorescence staining, the TRPV1-IR and CGRP-IR neurons were mostly small to medium sized. The percentages of TRPV1-IR and CGRP-IR neurons in trigeminal ganglion increased after applying force, and reached the peak at 1-3 d and then fell to the initial level gradually. In addition, the application of greater force during experimental tooth movement induced higher percentages of TRPV1-IR and CGRP-IR neurons in trigeminal ganglion. CONCLUSIONS: Experimental tooth movement leads to the regular changes of TRPV1-IR and CGRP-IR neurons in trigeminal ganglion, indicating that TRPV1 and CGRP may play important roles in orthodontic pain.
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    The effect of denture base resins coated with antibacterial coating on water sorption, solubility and monomer elution
    YANG Yang,GONG Hai-huan,SONG Ai-yang,FENG Dan,JIN Jie,ZHU Song
    2015, 24 (1):  13-17. 
    Abstract ( 166 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (668KB) ( 236 )  
    PURPOSE: To determine the influence of denture base resins coated with antibacterial coating on water sorption, solubility and monomer elution. METHODS: The values of water sorption and solubility were measured according to YY 0270-2003 and gas chromatography was used to examine the leachability of 4 commercially available heat-cured acrylic resins between experimental group and control group. Degree of crosslinking of the experimental heat-cured acrylic denture bases were measured by soxhlet extraction method. The data was analyzed by 17.0 software package. RESULTS: The values of water sorption, solubility and monomer elution of experimental group were lower compared to the control group. Degree of crosslinking of Heraeus reins was the highest among the experimental heat-cured acrylic denture bases. CONCLUSIONS: There is a same trend among water sorption, degree of crosslinking and the monomer elution. When the degree of crosslinking increases, the values of water sorption and monomer elution decrease. Antibacterial coating can improve the comprehensive properties of the denture base resins.
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    In vitro remineralization effect of grape seed extract on artificial dentin caries
    SHI Ju-hong,LI Hong,WANG Yi-na
    2015, 24 (1):  18-22. 
    Abstract ( 339 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (642KB) ( 321 )  
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on remineralization of artificial dentin caries. METHODS:Sixty human dentine fragments were stored in a demineralization solution for 24 h at 37℃ to induce artificial dentin caries lesions. The fragments were then randomly divided into 4 groups: 10% GSE, 1 mg/L NaF, 10% GSE+1 mg/L NaF and distilled water (DDW, as control). The demineralized samples were pH-cycled for 8 days and surface dentine microhardness was assessed before and after pH-cycling regimen. The percentage surface microhardness recovery (SMHR) was calculated. The samples were subsequently analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS). The date was analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher’s tests by SPSS17.0 software package. RESULTS: The percentage surface microhardness recovery (SMHR) was obtained for GSE, NaF, GSE+NaF and DDW group(40.87±9.92,44.60±12.48,48.54±9.27 and 15.98±8.33, respectively). The treatment groups significantly increased the microhardness of the lesions (P<0.05) compared to DDW group, with no statistically significant difference among the treatment groups(P>0.05). Scanning electron microscopy of the treatment groups revealed greater mineral deposition on dentinal tubules, and DDW group formed honeycomb structure. Furthermore, from EDXS data, the treatment groups had higher percentage of Ca and P than the control. CONCLUSIONS: GSE positively affects the remineralization processes of artificial dentinal caries lesions, which may be a promising natural agent for remineralization therapy instead of fluoride.
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    Facial motoneurons death and caspase regulatory gene expression following facial nerve injury
    WEI Hai-gang,LI Shu-guang,CHEN Yu-ting,CAI Chao-xiong,XU Biao
    2015, 24 (1):  23-29. 
    Abstract ( 180 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (1203KB) ( 199 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate the morphology of facial motoneurons and its death course as well as caspase 3, caspase 8, cyto-c death proteins’ expression and their correlation following facial nerve distal transection or crush in rats. METHODS: The right facial nerve underwent distal transaction and crush as experimental group, while the left facial nerve acted as normal control. We observed the morphology and the death course of motoneurons by light microscope and transmission electron microscope. Expressions of caspase 3, 8, and cyto-c protein were studied by immunohistochemistry (S-P) and image analysis. SPSS 10.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: ① Both axon distal transection and axon crush resulted in death of facial motoneurons. The motoneurons’ loss reached peak 28 days after injuries and were mainly through apoptotic pathway. The number of motoneurons’ loss in the distal transection group were more than that in the crush group. ② Caspase 3, caspase 8 and cyto-c protein expressions were observed in wide spread areas of normal rat facial nucleus. In addition to neurons, glial cells were also stained. Cells of the distal transection group stained more strongly than that of crush group. Expressions of the proteins began to increase 3 days after the injuries. Caspase 3 and caspase 8 protein expression reached peak 14 days whereas cyto-c protein expression reached peak 7 days after the injuries. Expression of caspase 8 and protein were correlated with expression of caspase 3 protein. CONCLUSIONS: ①Different facial nerve injuries result in death of facial motoneurons. The loss of motoneurons is related with the injuries’ patterns. Clinical nerve reparation should be performed as early as possible within 4 weeks after the transection. ②The expression of caspase 3, 8 and cyto-c protein were related with facial nerve injuries’ patterns. Caspase 8 and cyto-c protein expressions were correlated with caspase 3 protein expression, indicating that caspase 8 and cyto-c may take part in activating caspase 3. Caspase cascade reaction may have an important role in the apoptosis of facial motoneurons.
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    Mechanism of chloroquine in promoting sensitivity of chemotherapeutics in oral squamous cell carcinoma CAL-27 cell line to cisplatin
    QUAN Hai-ying,ZHOU Li-jia,LI Ang-di,Zhang Ze-bing
    2015, 24 (1):  30-36. 
    Abstract ( 290 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1121KB) ( 346 )  
    PURPOSE: To study the role and mechanism of autophagy in chemotherapy of oral squamous cell carcinoma, and provide theoretical evidence to improve chemotherapeutic efficacy of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. METHODS: The cell survival rate changes induced by cisplatin (DDP) and chloroquine (CQ) in CAL-27 cells were assayed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium method(MTT). The LC3-Ⅱ expression level was detected by laser scanning confocal microscope; The apoptotic rate was determined by flow cytometry. SPSS17.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: MTT results showed that compared with the control group, the cell survival rate reduced with the increasing time of DDP and CQ treatment; The optimal concentration of CAL-27 cells was 5 mg/L after treatment with CQ. IC50 of the CAL-27 cells was 5 mg/L after treatment with DDP; MTT results showed that the cell survival rate of CQ+DDP group was significantly lower than control group, CQ group and DDP group (P<0.05). With the action of CQ and DDP to CAL-27 cells for 48 hours, immunofluorescence results showed that the average fluorescence intensity of DDP group was significantly higher than the other 3 groups (P<0.05), while it was significantly lower in CQ group than the other 3 groups (P<0.05). With the action of CQ and DDP to CAL-27 cells for 48 hours, flow cytometry results showed that the cell apoptosis rate of DDP group and CQ+DDP group were significantly higher than control group and CQ group. The cell apoptosis rate of CQ+DDP group was significantly higher than DDP group (P<0.05). With the action of CQ and DDP to CAL-27 cells for 48 hours, cells in G1 phase of DDP group and CQ+DDP group increased, indicating G1 phase blockage. The cell count in G1 phase of CQ+DDP group was significantly higher than DDP group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of autophagy can enhance the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of DDP in CAL-27 cells. Autophagy in CAL-27 cells is an important mechanism for chemotherapy resistance of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Autophagy inhibitor may have significant potential to be a novel chemotherapeutic sensitizer for oral squamous cell carcinoma.
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    Establishment of animal model with peri-implantitis after immediate implantation in rabbits
    SHEN Lan-Hua,MENG Ling-Na,WANG Xin,JIANG Hui,WANG Shan-Shan
    2015, 24 (1):  37-40. 
    Abstract ( 247 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (726KB) ( 308 )  
    PURPOSE: To establish animal model with peri-implantitis after immediate implantation and study bone defect characteristics by Micro-CT. METHODS: Implants were immediately planted in the first mandibular anterior tooth of 12 rabbits. Silk ligatures were placed around one side of the implants to induce peri-implantitis. Micro-CT was used to evaluate bone defect at different periods after implantation. RESULTS: Silk ligatures around the implants were effective to induce peri-implantitis. With the development of peri-implantitis, implants can not be well integrated with bone. Bone defect was gradually produced and then aggravated, and finally formed typical "V-type" bone defect. CONCLUSIONS: The establishment of animal model with peri-implantitis is simple and effective, which provides important references for relative studies in the field of peri-implantitis.
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    Expression of MMP-2 in the periodontal tissues with the miniscrew for molar intrusion with cyclic intrusive force in dogs
    GU Meng-jie,GONG Bai-juan,SUN Xin-hua,WANG En-hui,ZHANG Bing,SUN Han
    2015, 24 (1):  41-45. 
    Abstract ( 202 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (720KB) ( 189 )  
    PURPOSE: To observe the expression of MMP-2 in the periodontal tissues of molars in Beagle dogs after different times of intrusion by miniscrew with cyclic intrusive force. METHODS: Three mature Beagle dogs were used for the experiment. On the buccal and palatal sites of the left maxillary second and third premolars, a miniscrew was placed at the interradicular septa separately, intruding the tooth with 150 g initial force, which would be reinforced every 4 weeks. The teeth of left side as the experimental group were divided into 3 subgroups, as being intruded 12, 24 and 36 weeks, and the right side as blank control. Then the dogs were sacrificed, and the second and the third premolars with the surrounding periodontal tissue were cut down, fixed, decalcified, wrapped and cut into slices. Immunohistochemical staining with MMP-2 was performed. The average optical density (OD) of MMP-2 was calculated with IPP software, which represented the expression of MMP-2. SPSS 17.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the expression of MMP-2 in control group was low. After tooth intrusion, MMP-2 expression significantly increased in the periodontal tissues of molars, and reached the maximum in the group of 24 weeks. Then MMP-2 expression decreased in the 36-week group but still significantly higher than the control group. There was no significant difference among the 3 subgroups for different intrusion times(P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: MMP-2 participates in remodeling of the periodontal tissue during tooth intrusion. The expression of MMP-2 is not significantly increased with the extension of the intrusion time with cyclic intrusive force, which suggests that with the use of miniscrew to intrude the molars with cyclic intrusive force, the periodontal tissues of the intruded tooth maintain dynamic balance of bone remodeling.
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    Study of relationship between (Ca+Zn)/P of pure titanium surface coating and biological activity of osteoblasts
    SHANG Ya-wei,ZHANG Wei,HE Jing,WANG Dan-ning,ZHONG Ming,ZHAO Bao-hong
    2015, 24 (1):  46-51. 
    Abstract ( 331 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (909KB) ( 305 )  
    PURPOSE: To study osteoblast (MC3T3-E1 cells) adhesion, proliferation and differentiation activity on the surface of pure titanium with different (Ca+Zn)/P ratios,and determine Ca,P,Zn contents offering best biological activity on pure titanium surface. METHODS: In the micro-arc oxidation electrolyte, Ca, P with a certain concentration, and 5 different concentrations of Zn (0,0.01,0.03,0.04, and 0.06 mol/L) were added, which made the mole ratio of Ca and P element close to the ratio of hydroxyapatite. (Ca+Zn)/P ratio of bioactive coating on 5 different pure titanium material surfaces were prepared, which named S0 and S1, S2, S3 and S4 group, respectively. The surface elements, existence form, (Ca + Zn)/P ratio and surface morphology were analyzed by XPS and SEM; MC3T3-E1 cells adhesion, proliferation and differentiation cultured on the material surface were analyzed by SEM, MTT method and ALP activity assay. RESULTS: The data was analyzed with SPSS13.0 software package. With the increase of Zn content in the electrolyte, (Ca+Zn)/P ratios were 2.94, 2.64 2.71,2.87 and 2.72 in S0 ~ S4 group, respectively. (Ca+Zn)/P ratio was maximal in S3 group and decreased in S4 group. MC3T3-E1 cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation capacity on material surface of 5 groups changed in the following order: S3 > S4 > S2 > S1 > S0, with significant differences among 5 groups (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Coating with different concentrations of Ca, P, Zn on pure titanium surface by micro-arc oxidation technique, the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation ability of osteoblast increase as (Ca+Zn)/P ratio increase, and cell biological activity is the best when the (Ca+Zn)/P ratio reached 2.87.
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    Effect of 3 polishing methods on microleakage of 2 kinds of resin composite restorations
    HE Hong,WANG Yi
    2015, 24 (1):  52-55. 
    Abstract ( 186 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (529KB) ( 291 )  
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of different polishing methods on microleakage of different resin composite restorations (Filtek Z350 and Filtek Z250). METHODS: Standardized preparations (the box-type cavities, 3 mm in length and width,2 mm in depth) were prepared at the cemento-enamel junction on buccal surface of 80 premolars. They were randomly divided into 2 groups, and restored with composites( Filtek Z350 or Filtek Z250). Based on polishing methods, the specimens of each group were randomly classified into 4 subgroups: no polishing, polishing with Sof-lex discs, polishing with Super-snap discs and polishing with diamond burs. After thermal circulation (2000 times, 5-55℃) and soaked for 24 hours in 2% methyl blue solution, the specimens were cut through the midline of the restoration, the microleakage at the occlusal margin and the gingival margin were observed under a stereomicroscope and the leakage depth was measured with Spot version 4.6 software package. The microleakage width and microleakage depth of different groups were analyzed with SPSS 17.0 software package for Mann -Whitney U test and Kruskal - Wallis test. RESULTS: The microleakage depth of Filtek Z350 groups was (0.655±0.486) mm,(0.626±0.497) mm,(0.634±0.345) mm and(0.875±0.283)mm, respectively. The microleakage depth of Filtek Z250 groups was (0.785±0.553) mm、(0.763±0.491) mm,(0.789±0.308) mm and (0.942±0.318) mm. The microleakage depth of specimens polishing with diamond burs was significantly deeper than that of other groups. There was no significant difference among specimens with no polishing, polishing with Sof-lex discs and polishing with Super-snap discs. CONCLUSIONS: The polishing system of Sof-lex discs and Super-snap discs have no significant influence on microleakage of resin composite restorations.
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    p38 signal pathway regulates osteogenic differentiation of maxillary primordium mesenchymal cells
    ZHAO Yi-song,ZHONG Hui-min,HE Zhi-wei,ZHANG Guo-liang,WU Jiang
    2015, 24 (1):  56-60. 
    Abstract ( 185 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (938KB) ( 191 )  
    PURPOSE: To explore whether p38 signal pathway regulates osteogenic differentiation of maxillary primordium mesenchymal cells. METHODS: The first passage of maxillary primordium mesenchymal cells (MPMCs) from E12.5 embryos were cultured in the osteogenic medium, and 10 nM SB203580 (an inhibitor of phosphorylation of p38) was added in the medium in the experimental group for 1 week. Then immunofluorescence staining was applied to detect the phosphorylation of p38 in MPMCs. Brdu label and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect the proliferation of MPMCs. ALP staining and qPCR were used to detect the mRNA expression of ALP, Runx2, OCN and OPN in MPMCs. ALP staining and PCR were used to evaluate the osteogenic capability of MPMCs. SPSS 18.0 software package was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Osteogenic induction could promote phosphorylation of p38, inhibit phosphorylation of p38 and proliferation of MPMCs, down-regulate the expression of ALP, Runx2, OCN and OPN, thus weaken the ALP staining in MPMCs. CONCLUSIONS: p38 signal pathway regulates osteogenic differentiation of MPMCs in vitro.
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    The effect of platelet-rich fibrin on biologic characteristics of osteoblasts
    SUN Xiao-lin,ZHOU Yan-min,ZHAO Jing-hui,ZHENG Ling,YANG Ting-ting
    2015, 24 (1):  61-64. 
    Abstract ( 242 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (570KB) ( 204 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of platelet-rich fibrin on biologic characteristics of osteoblasts. METHODS: Osteoblasts were cultured with or without a PRF membrane. The cell proliferation was detected by MTT. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) stain and the positive expression of collagen typeⅠ, osteoprotegerin and RANKL were measured. The data was statistically analyzed with SPSS17.0 software package. RESULTS: PRF promoted cell proliferation and increased expression of ALP, collagen typeⅠand OPG significantly, but there was no significant impact on expression of RANKL. CONCLUSIONS: PRF promotes osteoblasts proliferation, differentiation and OPG expression. PRF is involved in bone remodeling via regulating expression of OPG and RANKL.
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    Clinical Study
    Three-dimensional localization and assessment of maxillary palatal impacted canines with cone-beam computed tomography
    YU Jian-nan,GU Yue-guang,ZHAO Chun-yang,LIU Ke,MO Shi-cheng,LI Hu,PAN Cheng-qiong,WANG Lin
    2015, 24 (1):  65-70. 
    Abstract ( 433 )   HTML ( 28 )   PDF (901KB) ( 313 )  
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the location of maxillary palatal impacted canines and resorption of neighboring incisors with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). METHODS: Twenty-two healthy adolescent patients who had received orthodontic treatments at Stomatological Hospital of Nanjing Medical University were selected and scanned by CBCT. Palatal impacted maxillary canines were reconstructed by Dolphin imaging 11.0 software. The impactions, spatial relationships and classification relative to adjacent structures and incisor resorption were assessed. RESULTS: Most of the maxillary palatal impacted canines inclinated mesially and palatally. Mesial malpositions were more significantly prevalent in ClassⅠand Ⅳ, and the prevalence rates were 30.8% and 38.5% respectively. Mesial inclinations of the impacted canines to occlusal plane were mostly between 53.8° and 68.5°, and the distances from the impacted canines to median sagittal plane were between 5.4 and 8.4 mm. Older the patient was, further the impacted canines mesiopalatal displaced and mesial inclined. The roots of 84.6% of lateral incisors and 19.2% of central incisors contacted impacted canines; Root resorption occurred in 50% of lateral incisors and 15.4% of central incisors, which predominantly located in apical third of the lateral incisors and middle third of the central incisors. A inverse correlation was found between the resorption rates of adjacent incisors and minimum distances from impacted canines to adjacent incisors. CONCLUSIONS: CBCT allows three dimensional evaluation of impaction and spatial relationships relative to adjacent structures. In addition, 3 dimensional measurement contributes to more accurate exhibition of the adjacent root resorptions, inclinations and depths of the impacted canines, which leads to more efficient guidance of maxillary palatal impacted canines treatment.
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    Expression and clinical significance of plasma microRNA-125b level in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma
    GU Wen-li,YE Dong-xia,WU Jing-jing
    2015, 24 (1):  71-75. 
    Abstract ( 252 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (654KB) ( 278 )  
    PURPOSE: To explore the expression and clinical significance of plasma microRNA-125b (miR-125b) in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). METHODS: By Stem-loop RT real-time PCR based on the SYBR Green, we investigated the expression of plasma miR-125b in 85 OSCC patients and 46 healthy controls, then evaluated its diagnostic performance as OSCC biomarker. Data analysis was performed with SPSS 17.0 software package for one-way ANOVA and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: Stem-loop RT-PCR could specifically amplify miR-125b in plasma. The expression of plasma miR-125b was significantly increased in patients with OSCC compared with healthy controls (P<0.05). ROC results showed that miR-125b could differentiate OSCC from healthy controls(AUC=0.966). As fold change 3.46 was chosen for optimal cutoff value, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity was 89.4% and 93.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the satisfactory diagnostic performance, plasma miR-125b can be used as a promising biomarker in OSCC.
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    Treatment of adult bimaxillary arch protrusion with micro-implant anchorage
    CHEN Cheng,ZHANG Xiao-rong
    2015, 24 (1):  76-82. 
    Abstract ( 271 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (987KB) ( 240 )  
    PURPOSE: In this study, micro-implants were used in 15 adult patients with mild and moderate bimaxillary arch protrusion or crowding. Cephalometric analysis was used to analyze hard and soft-tissues change before and after treatment, with the aim to investigate the effects of treatment on adult bimaxillary arch protrusion with micro-implant anchorage. METHODS: Fifteen adult patients with mild and moderate bimaxillary arch protrusion were selected in this study. Micro-implants were inserted into the zygomaticoalveolar ridge of maxilla and the external oblique line of mandible. A NiTi coil spring was attached to the micro-implant to drag the whole upper and lower dentition for distal movement. Cephalometrics were taken before and after treatment, and the changes of soft and hard-tissue profile were studied. SPSS13.0 software package was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: ①Sixty micro-implants remained stable.②SNA, SNB had no significant changes (P>0.05), and the relationship between the maxilla and the mandible did not change significantly. U1/NA, U1-NA, L1/NB, L1-NB and U1/L1 changes in hard tissue had significant difference in cephalometric measurement (P<0.05). The upper and lower anterior teeth were more retrusive, and the tipping of incisor decreased significantly.③Cephalometric analysis showed that lateral appearance improved and soft tissue cephalometric-related measurements such as Cm-Sn-UL,LL-B’-Pos increased significantly (P<0.01). ④Molars and incisors acquired distal movement. CONCLUSIONS: Micro-implant can provide not only excellent skeletal anchorage but also a novel way to distalize the whole dentition efficiently.
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    BMP2/BMP4 genetic evaluation in 40 patients with tooth agenesis
    ZOU Chuan,GAO Qing-ping,Hussam Haji Bakr,WANG Wei,BAI Xin-na,HE Fang-qi
    2015, 24 (1):  83-88. 
    Abstract ( 199 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (820KB) ( 266 )  
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the potential mutation in BMP2/BMP4 genes in Chinese patients with non-syndromic hypodontia. METHODS: Genomic DNA was isolated from blood samples of 40 non-syndromic hypodontia Chinese patients. One hundred unrelated individuals, who were not affected with tooth agenesis (excluding third molars), were used as controls. PCR was performed to amplify each exon of BMP2/BMP4 genes. Gel-purified PCR fragments were sequenced to detect mutations. SPSS13.0 software package was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: We identified 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) BMP2, c.109T>G p.Ser37Ala; c.261A>G p.Ser87Ser; c.570A>T p.Arg190Ser;BMP4 c.455T>C p.Val152Ala; and a novel mutation BMP2 c.166C>G p.Arg56Gly within the family. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding suggests that all the identified SNPs and the new mutation of BMP2 may be responsible for tooth agenesis in the participants, but the possible association requires further research.
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    Expression and clinical significance of the genes of Wnt signaling pathway in keratocystic odontogenic tumor of the jaw bones
    KONG Li,WANG Bing-chao,YUAN Rong-tao,JIA Mu-yun,WANG Ke
    2015, 24 (1):  89-93. 
    Abstract ( 203 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (838KB) ( 244 )  
    PURPOSE: To study the role of genes of Wnt signaling pathway in keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) of the jaw bones. METHODS: Fresh specimens of KCOT and the same patient 's normal oral mucosa were obtained. Then RNA was extracted. Gene chip was used to detect the genes of Wnt signaling pathway. RESULTS: Compared to normal oral mucosa, there were 5 genes of Wnt signaling pathway in KCOT changed, including CAMK2A down-regulated, FZD3, MAPK10, PRKX and WNT5a up-regulated. CONCLUSIONS: There are abnormal expressions of genes of Wnt pathway in KCOT. Genes of Wnt pathway plays certain roles in KCOT.
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    Investigation of the prevalence of periodontal diseases among naval personnel during prolonged sailing
    ZHAO Zheng,LI Lu-jia,HUANG Zheng-nan,JIA Bao-jun,YANG Hai-qing
    2015, 24 (1):  94-97. 
    Abstract ( 234 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (568KB) ( 249 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence of periodontal diseases among naval personnel during prolonged sailing. METHODS: The calculus index-simplified (CI-S), plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), community periodontal index (CPI), attachment loss (AL), number of missing tooth (NMT) and prevalence of periodontal disease were recorded among 186 naval personnel who participated in prolonged sailing before and after sailing. The data was analyzed with SPSS 14.0 software package. RESULTS: Each periodontal index after sailing was significantly higher than that of before sailing(P<0.01). Before sailing, the prevalence of periodontal diseases from 186 objects was 59.7%; While after sailing the prevalence increased to 83.3%. Among them, patients who suffered from gingivitis and mid or moderate periodontitis raised greatly, and significant differences were found in the prevalence and degree of periodontal disease (P<0.01) compared between pre-sailing and post-sailing. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged sailing environment, food constraint and poor oral hygiene can influence periodontal state of naval personnel. To enhance propaganda and education on oral hygiene promptly and effectively,to develop the habit of correct toothbrushing, to have balanced and rational diet, and to perform proper periodontal non-surgical treatment and medication are essential to periodontal health of naval personnel during prolonged sailing.
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    Study of the influence of nodal liquefaction in measurement of the ADC value of OSCC metastatic lymph nodes in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma
    SI Jia-wen,HU Qi-fan,HUANG Sheng-yun,ZOU Hu-wei,SHI Jun,ZHANG Dong-sheng,SHEN Guo-fang
    2015, 24 (1):  98-101. 
    Abstract ( 265 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (510KB) ( 178 )  
    PURPOSE: To study the influence of nodal liquefaction portion in the measurement of the ADC value of metastatic lymph nodes in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) on DW-MRI images. METHODS: According to the postoperative histopathological examination results, the DW-MRI data of 25 OSCC patients was analyzed. The ADC values of both solid portions of metastatic lymph nodes and the whole metastatic lymph nodes with internal liquefaction were selected and measured. Further comparison between the 2 groups was processed for 2 independent samples t test with SPSS 17.0 software package. RESULTS: Eleven patients out of all cases were diagnosed with cervical lymph node metastasis, and 15 metastatic lymph nodes were detected, among which 8 metastatic lymph nodes had obvious internal liquefaction. The average ADC values of solid portions of metastatic lymph nodes (group SMLN) and the whole metastatic lymph nodes with internal liquefaction (LMLN group) ADC were (872.1±22.65)×10-6mm2/s (n=15) and (1073±16.99)×10-6mm2/s (n=8), respectively. Two independent samples t test showed statistically significant difference of ADC values between group SMLN and group LMLN (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The internal liquefaction in OSCC metastatic lymph nodes can lead to an increased average ADC value. If the measurement of OSCC metastatic lymph nodes includes obvious liquefaction portions, it may reduce the diagnostic accuracy of DW-MRI for discrimination of lymph node metastasis.
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    Detection of gingipain K in the gingival crevicular fluid of orthodontic patients
    YANG Gang-ling,LI Wei-zhe,HAN Zhi-qiang,XIAO Shui-qing
    2015, 24 (1):  102-106. 
    Abstract ( 198 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (626KB) ( 252 )  
    PURPOSE: To explore the correlation between gingipain K (Kgp) and inflammatory reaction of gum in the process of orthodontic treatment, and analyse the role of Kgp in the development of gingivitis during orthodontic treatment. METHODS: Totally 45 orthodontic healthy teenagers were randomly chosen for the study. The subgingival plaques were collected simultaneously before orthodontic treatment and 3 months after treatment. 16S rDNA PCR technique was used to detect Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g) and Kgp. SPSS17.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The detection rate of Kgp was 35.71% before orthodontic treatment and 67.86% after treatment. Positive correlation (P<0.05) was observed between Kgp and gingival inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Fixed orthodontic appliances cause plaque accumulation, accordingly slight gingiva inflammation and the increament of P.gingivalis in the early stage.
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    The change of patients’ psychosomatic symptoms after orthognathic surgery
    LI Xing-ru,CHEN Li-qiang,LI Ya-li,SUN-Jian
    2015, 24 (1):  107-110. 
    Abstract ( 317 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (472KB) ( 282 )  
    PURPOSE: To assess the change of patients’ psychological status before and after orthognathic surgery. METHODS: The psychological status in 36 patients were assessed before and after orthognathic surgery using the SCL-90 questionnaire. The patients were allowed to evaluate the changes of mastication, facial aesthetics, pronunciation and function of temporomandibular joint subjectively through the questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS13.0 software package. RESULTS: Six factors including obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety and psychoticism were significantly higher than norm preoperatively. No obvious abnormalities were found 2 years after operation. The self-evaluated quotas by patients after operation were significantly improved compared with those preoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: The patients’ psychosomatic symptoms are significantly improved after operation. No significant difference is found compared with ordinary people concerning psychological health.
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    The influence of lower vertical dimension construction of complete denture on cerebral blood flow
    HU Xiao-ping,ZHU Hong-shui,YU Jing-wen
    2015, 24 (1):  111-114. 
    Abstract ( 245 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (510KB) ( 204 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of lower vertical dimension construction on cerebral blood flow among patients with complete denture. METHODS: Ten edentulous patients were chosen and lower vertical dimension was constructed with complete denture. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography was used to detect the average peak flow velocity, peak systolic velocity and end-diastolic peak flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery. The detection was performed before chewing, 10 minutes after chewing and 20 minutes after chewing, respectively. Before-after self control study was designed, and SPSS18.0 software package was used to analyze the data with independent samples t test and multiple comparisons and analysis of variance. RESULTS: There was no significant increase in cerebral blood flow before chewing, 10 minutes after chewing and 20 minutes after chewing in the experimental group, while blood flow velocity of the control group was significantly increased. The blood flow velocity of the experimental group 10 minutes after chewing was significantly lower than that of the control group, while no significant difference was found after chewing between the experimental group and control group 20 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: No significant increase of cerebral blood flow is detected in patients whose vertical dimension are lower when restored with complete denture during mastication.
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    Clinical Reports
    Management of infected fractures of the mandible by open reduction and rigid internal fixation with reconstructive plates
    ZHANG De-hui,LIU Xi-yun
    2015, 24 (1):  115-117. 
    Abstract ( 220 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (483KB) ( 339 )  
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the epidemiology and the treatment of infected fractures of the mandible. METHODS: Thirty-five cases of infected mandible fractures treated by extra oral open reduction and rigid internal fixation with reconstructive plates were retrospectively investigated. RESULTS: The fracture healing and occlusion recovery of 34 cases were satisfied without any nonunion or deformity, except 1 case healed after bone grafting for bone defect. CONCLUSIONS:The reconstructive plate fixation is applicable to the treatment of infected mandible fractures by its excellent stability and reliability.
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    Application of baked plastic splint in occlusal reconstruction: clinical analysis of 21 consecutive cases
    HE Ze-hong,JIN Shu-ren,PENG Shao-bin,HONG Yi-wang
    2015, 24 (1):  118-120. 
    Abstract ( 215 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (429KB) ( 227 )  
    PURPOSE: To observe the effect of removable denture with metal stent of baked plastic occlusal pad in the reconstruction of dentition defects accompanied with severe residual teeth attrition. METHODS: Twenty one patients were selected with dentition defects accompanied with severe residual teeth attrition, who needed occlusal reconstruction. Their removable dentures with metal stent of baked plastic occlusal pad were reconstructed, and their occlusal vertical dimensions were restored. The restoration effect was evaluated. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were treated and followed up for 12-24 months. Excellent results were achieved in 18 patients, and fair results were obtained in 3 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Using the baked plastic occlusal pad can not only recover patients’ occlusal vertical dimension, but also restore the shapes and function of their residual teeth to a better extent. It is a good method for occlusal reconstruction.
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    Dental Education
    Application of role play in cardiopulmonary resuscitation teaching for dental students
    ZHU Hong,HUANG Jing,SHEN Dao-jie,CHEN Yuan-mei
    2015, 24 (1):  121-123. 
    Abstract ( 216 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (440KB) ( 272 )  
    PURPOSE: To explore the effect of role-play in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) teaching for dental students. METHODS: The experimental group included 40 students from grade 2011 while the control group included 41 students from grade 2010 in College of Stomatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Students in the control group were taught in traditional method, while those in the experimental group were taught using role play method. At the end of the course, we compared the outcome of theoretic test and skill evaluation about CPR. Evaluation of role-play in the experimental group was conducted by questionnaire survey. SPSS13.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The results of theoretic test and skill evaluation in the experimental group were significantly better than those of the control group (P<0.05). The result of questionnaire showed that role-play was approved by over 80% students. CONCLUSIONS: Role-play is advantageous over traditional teaching for dental students and can improve students’ comprehensive ability and CPR skill.
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    Review Article
    Research progress of quantitative DNA analysis in oral carcinoma and precancerous lesions
    XIAO Xuan,SHI Lin-Jun,ZHOU Zeng-tong
    2015, 24 (1):  124-128. 
    Abstract ( 533 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (544KB) ( 719 )  
    Normal individual cells had 23 pairs of chromosome and stable DNA content. DNA content was varied during malignant transformation, which was specific feature of tumor. Quantitative DNA analysis can reflect cellular physiological or pathological condition by nuclear DNA content, which had significant role in early diagnosis, predication of prognosis and treatment selection. This article summarized the research progress of quantitative DNA analysis in oral carcinoma and precancerous lesions in recent years.
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