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    25 August 2023, Volume 32 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Monkeypox transmission and oral prevention
    GUO Yi, KONG Ya-hua, QIN Ye, LIU Xiao-fen
    2023, 32 (4):  337-341.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.04.001
    Abstract ( 129 )   PDF (681KB) ( 111 )  
    Monkeypox is becoming a viral infectious disease of global concern. WHO has reported monkeypox outbreaks in more than 50 countries. Since the first imported case has been confirmed and reported by Taiwan, China, in June 2022, the monkeypox has draw high attention from the national public health and epidemic prevention department. Among the key tasks of Shanghai high-quality healthcare development in 2023, monkeypox has been identified as one of the key infectious diseases that need to be under strict prevention and control. The diagnosis and treatment in dental department are mainly performed face-to-face, with patients' masks taken-off. Large amount of aerosol spray will be generated during the operation. At the same time, dental diagnosis and treatment is in outpatient department, where the patient flow is large. Once monkeypox patients have been diagnosed and treated in the dental diagnosis and treatment area, and the preventive measures are not implemented, it will provide convenience for monkeypox to transmit. In order to avoid this kind of situation, this article made a review of monkey-pox from the following 3 aspects: epidemic transmission history of monkeypox, systemic and oral symptoms of monkeypox, and oral prevention of monkeypox, to improve the knowledge and prevention ability of dental medical staff on monkeypox for early recognition and prevention.
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    Original Articles
    In vitro biological evaluation of PEGylated poly(glycerol sebacate)/β-TCP-coating modified magnesium alloy
    ZHANG Cheng-long, ZHANG Chang-ru, SI Jia-wen, YUAN Yuan, YU Hong-bo, SHEN Hong-zhou, SHEN Guo-fang
    2023, 32 (4):  342-350.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.04.002
    Abstract ( 98 )   PDF (1672KB) ( 125 )  
    PURPOSE: To prepare PEGS/β-TCP modified magnesium alloy (PEGS/β-TCP/MZG) membranes by forming a glycolated poly(sebacate)/β-tricalcium phosphate (PEGS/β-TCP) coating on the surface of magnesium-zinc-gadolinium alloy (MZG) membranes, and to evaluate the osteogenic induction activity and immunomodulatory properties of PEGS/β-TCP/MZG using the material extract medium. METHODS: PEGS/β-TCP coating was prepared on the surface of MZG by solvent method, and the PEGS/β-TCP/MZG membrane was fabricated and compared with PEGS/β-TCP and MZG to examine the morphology, composition, and hydrophilicity. The amount of magnesium ions released and the pH value of the materials were tested after 3 days of immersion. The cell viability and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3 cells induced by extract medium were investigated by CCK-8 assay, ALP and mineralized nodule staining. The cell viability and polarization of RAW cells induced by extract medium were then investigated. The expression of macrophage-secreted cytokines was examined by PCR analysis. GraphPad Prism 9.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: PEGS/β-TCP/MZG membranes with PEGS/β-TCP coating tightly embedded with MZG were successfully fabricated, and the material had good hydrophilicity. The results of degradation experiments indicated that the PEGS/β-TCP coating effectively slowed down the degradation rate of MZG, leading to a lower pH value and concentration of Mg2+ ion in the extract medium of PEGS/β-TCP/MZG group. The results of in vitro cell experiments showed that PEGS/β-TCP/MZG had no significant effect on the proliferation activity of both MC3T3-E1 and macrophages. PEGS/β-TCP/MZG significantly enhanced the expression of ALP and mineralized nodule staining in MC3T3-E1. Although there was no significant difference in macrophage polarization pattern between PEGS/β-TCP and PEGS/β-TCP/MZG groups, PEGS/β-TCP/MZG further reduced inflammation based on the immunomodulation of PEGS/β-TCP coating related TNF-α expression and increased osteogenesis related TGF-β expression. CONCLUSIONS: MZG membrane modified by PEGS/β-TCP may provide a new material option for the development of bone tissue engineering.
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    Effect of bleaching combined with Er:YAG or Nd:YAG laser on shear bond strength and microleakage of resin restoration
    HOU Xiu-xiu, YUAN Ke-yong, HUANG Zheng-wei, MA Rui
    2023, 32 (4):  351-355.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.04.003
    Abstract ( 110 )   PDF (834KB) ( 94 )  
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of bleaching combined with Er:YAG laser or Nd:YAG laser on bond strength and microleakage of resin fillings on enamel surface. METHODS: Sixty-four pieces of enamel specimens prepared from isolated teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups(n=16): control group, simple bleaching group, bleaching combined with Er: YAG laser group and bleaching combined with Nd:YAG laser group. Then the shear bond strength and the depth of microleakage were tested, and the fracture mode of the specimen was observed under microscope. SPSS 26.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: After bleaching simply, the bond strength of the restoration was significantly decreased, and the marginal microleakage was significantly increased(P<0.05). There was no significant difference in shear bond strength and microleakage depth between the group bleaching combined with Er: YAG laser and control group(P>0.05). The shear bond strength after bleaching combined with Nd:YAG laser was significantly reduced (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in the depth of microleakage compared with unbleached microleakage(P>0.05). Bonding interface fracture was the main fracture mode for all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to traditional bleaching, bleaching combined with laser has certain clinical advantages due to its less influence on bond strength and microleakage of resin fillings.
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    Effect of sodium alginate-g-deferoxamine/chitosan microspheres on osteogenic differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells
    YU Mei-lin, WU Hai-miao, LI Gui-fei, HU Meng-yang, CHEN Dong
    2023, 32 (4):  356-362.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.04.004
    Abstract ( 105 )   PDF (2316KB) ( 95 )  
    PURPOSE: To explore the effect of sodium alginate-g-deferoxamine/chitosan (SA-g-DFO/CS) microspheres on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). METHODS: A kind of SA-g-DFO/CS microsphere was developed through electrostatic interaction between porous chitosan microspheres and sodium alginate chemically grafted on the surface of DFO. Its morphology, porosity rate, pore size and sustained release of DFO in vitro were examined. Rat BMSCs were isolated and co-cultured with microspheres in osteogenic differentiation medium. MTT assay was used to study the influence of cell proliferation, and Calcein-AM/PI staining was used to observe the cell viability. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay was conducted. PCR was used to detect the expression of genes related to angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 22.0 software package. RESULTS: The SA-g-DFO/CS porous microspheres were successfully prepared with a sustained release of DFO. Compared with SA/CS microspheres, the SA-g-DFO/CS microspheres were conducive to cell proliferation and differentiation, with the increases in expression level of ALP, related angiogenesis genes HIF-1α, VEGF and osteogenesis genes COLI, OCN. CONCLUSIONS: The SA-g-DFO/CS porous microspheres can provide a new choice for the development of alveolar bone regeneration.
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    Experimental study on the stimulation effect of temperature and capsaicin on oral mucosa of rats
    YANG Yi-fan, LUO Chun-mei, LI Xiao-bing, DU Qin
    2023, 32 (4):  363-368.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.04.005
    Abstract ( 113 )   PDF (2165KB) ( 99 )  
    PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of different temperatures and capsaicin solution on changes of morphology and inflammatory factor expressions in the oral mucosa. METHODS: The oral mucosa of rats was stimulated with normal saline (NS) and capsaicin solution at 25, 45, and 55 ℃ respectively for 4 weeks, and then the rats were sacrificed with chloral hydrate. H-E staining and immunohistochemical staining of the oral mucosa were prepared. The morphological changes of oral mucosa epithelium were observed and the expressions of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 were detected. SPSS 22.0 software package was used for statistical analysis, and Graphpad Prism 8.0 software was used for statistical graphing. RESULTS: When stimulated with NS and capsaicin solution at different temperatures, the results of H-E staining showed that there was no distinct injury in the mucosal epithelium at 25 ℃ and 45 ℃. Histopathological changes were observed in the oral mucosa at 55 ℃. The expressions of IL-6 and IL-8 in the epithelium were significantly increased (P< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: 55 ℃ NS solution and 55 ℃ capsaicin solution stimulated oral mucosa of the rats and caused infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lamina propria of the oral mucosa. They also stimulated the oral mucosa of rats, resulting in a significant increase in the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in the oral mucosal epithelium. The effect of capsaicin on IL-8 expression was enhanced with increasing temperature.
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    Effect of hot etching with two acid solutions on the surface topography and bond strength of zirconia
    LIANG Zhuo-ran, ZHANG Yan-nan, WEI Meng, LIU Min, WANG Bo, CHEN Jian-feng
    2023, 32 (4):  369-374.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.04.006
    Abstract ( 136 )   PDF (1643KB) ( 94 )  
    PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effect of hot etching with two acid solutions on the surface topography and bond strength of zirconia. METHODS: Firstly, twenty-four pieces of zirconia with a size of 10 mm×10 mm×2 mm and 20 pieces of zirconia with a size of 3 mm×3 mm×2 mm were prepared. Then pieces were divided into four groups, and dealt with separately according to the following groups: no treatment (group A), sandblasting (group B), hot etching with HCl(group C), hot etching with HF(group D). Finally, the surface topography and bond strength were tested by atomic force microscopy(AFM), scanning electron microscope(SEM), X-ray diffraction(XRD) and universal testing machine, etc. Statistical analysis of the experimental data was performed with SPSS 26.0 software package. The final results of XRD were analyzed using MDI Jade 6 combined with Origin 2019 software. RESULTS: Groups C and D produced completely different topographical changes on the surface of zirconia than group B. Obvious interfacial cracks were observed in group B. Group D achieved the highest roughness value (78.17±4.94) nm and highest shear bond strength (25.09±4.09) MPa. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with HCl, hot etching with HF could achieve more uniform and dense porous morphology, greater roughness and shear bond strength. There were no obvious cross-section interfacial cracks and crystal phase transformations on the surface of zirconia.
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    Effects of allicin on insulin resistance and free fatty acid levels in obese rats with periodontitis
    XIE Lan-fen, LI Xiao-jing, HUANG Xiao-lin, ZHAO Sheng-ke
    2023, 32 (4):  375-379.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.04.007
    Abstract ( 96 )   PDF (682KB) ( 75 )  
    PURPOSE: To explore the effects of allicin on insulin resistance and free fatty acids (FFAs) levels in obese rats with periodontitis. METHODS: Forty rats were randomly divided into healthy group, periodontitis group, and low, medium and high dose groups, with 8 rats in each group. The healthy group was healthy rats, and the other groups were induced by sodium glutamate(MSG). After successfully establishing an obesity model, the maxillary molars were ligated and smeared to establish a periodontitis model. Both the periodontitis group and the healthy group were given normal saline, and the allicin low, medium and high dose groups were given allicin 20, 40 and 60 mg·kg-1·d-1, mixed with feed for oral administration. After 21 days of treatment, the fasting blood glucose(FPG), fasting insulin (FINS), insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) scores and FFAs levels of the homeostatic model in rats were detected. The protein expression of TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway were compared. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 22.0 software package. RESULTS: Compared with the healthy group, FPG, FINS levels, HOMA-IR, IL-6 and TNF-α levels of the periodontitis group were significantly increased, and the expression of TLR4 and MyD88 proteins was significantly increased(P<0.05). Compared with the periodontitis group, FPG, FINS levels, HOMA-IR, IL-6 and TNF-α levels of low, medium and high-doses groups were significantly decreased, and the expression of TLR4 and MyD88 proteins was significantly decreased (P<0.05). Compared with the low-dose group, the levels of FPG and FINS, HOMA-IR, IL-6 and TNF-α levels of the middle and high-dose groups were significantly decreased, and the expression of TLR4 and MyD88 proteins was significantly decreased (P<0.05). Compared with the middle-dose group, the levels of FPG and FINS, HOMA-IR, IL-6 and TNF-α levels of the high-dose group were significantly decreased, and the expression of TLR4 and MyD88 proteins was significantly decreased (P<0.05). After treatment, FFAs of the low, medium and high-dose groups were significantly lower than those before treatment(P<0.05). Compared with the healthy group, FFAs levels of the periodontitis group, low-dose and medium-dose groups were significantly increased. Compared with the periodontitis group, FFAs levels of the low, medium and high-dose groups were significantly increased. Compared with the low-dose group, FFAs levels of the high-dose group were significantly increased. Compared with the middle-dose group, FFAs levels of the high-dose group were significantly increased (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Allicin can improve insulin resistance and obesity in obese rats with periodontitis, and its mechanism of action is related to the TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway.
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    Three-dimensional comparative study on the stability of bimaxillary simultaneous genioplasty and simple genioplasty
    ZHANG Chen, WANG Hong-wei, LI Biao, CAO Jian, WANG Xing, WANG Xu-dong
    2023, 32 (4):  380-384.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.04.008
    Abstract ( 110 )   PDF (928KB) ( 90 )  
    PURPOSE: To establish a three-dimensional method to evaluate whether there is a difference in stability between bimaxillary simultaneous genioplasty and simple genioplasty. METHODS: This study was a retrospective study. Sixty patients who underwent genioplasty were selected. They were divided into bimaxillary simultaneous genioplasty group (n=30) and simple genioplasty group (n=30). The spiral CT data of patients at 2 months before operation (T0), 7 days after operation (T1) and 12 months after operation (T2) were collected, reconstructed and separated, and the three-dimensional model of maxilla and mandible was obtained. A three-dimensional analysis method of stability was established by 3D-matching. Recurrences in three-dimensional space 12 months after surgery were analyzed in two groups of patients. Statistical analysis of the data was performed with SPSS 26.0 software package. RESULTS: In simple genioplasty, the maximum amount of the chin recurrence was sagittal backward recurrence (0.54±0.38) mm, and the sagittal recurrence rate was 12.27%. In bimaxillary simultaneous genioplasty, the maximum amount of the chin recurrence was sagittal backward recurrence (0.60±0.31) mm, and the sagittal recurrence rate was 12.96%. Rotation occurred in both groups 12 months after operation, which was 1.98±2.70° in the simple genioplasty group and 1.01±1.61° in the bimaxillary simultaneous genioplasty group(P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the sagittal movement of the chin between the two groups, and in the sagittal recurrence(P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The three-dimensional method established in this study can be used to evaluate the stability after genioplasty. The recurrence after genioplasty mainly occurred in the sagittal direction. The rotation trend of chin after genioplasty is worthy of attention. There was no increased risk for bimaxillary simultaneous genioplasty.
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    Expression of RACK1 and EGP40 in oral squamous cell carcinoma and its correlation with clinicopathological features and prognosis
    DUAN Yong-hua, WU Kai-liu, MEI Jian, ZHOU Yi-yuan, LIU Meng-shi
    2023, 32 (4):  385-390.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.04.009
    Abstract ( 109 )   PDF (1258KB) ( 90 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate the expression of tissue-active protein kinase C receptor 1 (RACK1) and epithelin glycoprotein 40 (EGP40) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and their relationship with clinicopathological features and prognosis. METHODS: A total of 103 patients with OSCC who were admitted to Shangrao People's Hospital from January 2016 to February 2019 were prospectively selected as the research subjects. All patients underwent radical resection of OSCC and were followed up for 3 years. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the positive expression levels of RACK1 and EGP40 in cancer tissues and adjacent tissues. The positive expression of RACK1 and EGP40 in cancer tissues and adjacent tissues were compared. The relationship between the positive expression level of RACK1 and EGP40 in cancer tissues of OSCC patients and clinicopathological parameters was analyzed. Factors affecting postoperative recurrence and metastasis in OSCC patients were analyzed. The relationship between the expression of RACK1 and EGP40 in cancer tissues and postoperative disease-free survival of OSCC patients was analyzed. SPSS 18.0 software package was used for statistical analysis of the data. RESULTS: The positive expression rate of RACK1 and EGP40 in cancer tissues was significantly higher than those in adjacent tissues (P<0.05). The positive expression rate of RACK1 and EGP40 in cancer tissues of OSCC patients with poorly differentiated, stage III, cervical lymph node metastasis, and infiltrating vessels was significantly higher than that in patients with moderate and high differentiation, stage II, no cervical lymph node metastasis, and no infiltrating vessels(P<0.05). The positive expression rate of RACK1 in cancer tissue of OSCC patients in T3 stage was significantly higher than that in T2 stage(P<0.05). Cox multivariate regression analysis showed pathological grade (RR=6.290, 95%CI: 2.588-15.287), cervical lymph node metastasis(RR=5.995, 95%CI: 2.467-14.571), RACK1 positive rate (RR=4.495, 95%CI: 1.850-10.925) and EGP40 positive rate (RR=4.559, 95%CI: 1.876-11.079) were factors affecting the recurrence and metastasis of OSCC patients after surgery(P<0.05). The disease-free survival curve of patients with negative expression of RACK1 was significantly better than that of patients with positive expression (P<0.05). The disease-free survival curve of patients with negative expression of EGP40 was significantly better than that of patients with positive expression (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The expression of RACK1 and EGP40 in cancer tissues of OSCC patients is related to clinicopathological parameters and prognosis. Patients with positive expression of RACK1 and EGP40 have a high risk of recurrence and metastasis after surgery.
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    Application of lingual wedge shaped coronectomy in extraction of horizontally impacted mandibular third molars
    JING Heng, LYU Dong-sheng, ZHOU Xian, LI Kai, LI Ning-yi
    2023, 32 (4):  391-394.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.04.010
    Abstract ( 105 )   PDF (883KB) ( 116 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of lingual wedge shaped coronectomy in extraction of horizontally impacted mandibular third molar(HIMTM). METHODS: A total of 172 patients with HIMTM were randomly divided into experimental group and routine group with 86 cases in each group . Lingual wedge-shaped coronectomy was applied in the experimental group and T-shaped coronectomy was applied in routine group. Operation time, intraoperative and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups.The data were analyzed by using SPSS 26.0 software package. RESULTS: The operation time of the experimental group was significantly shorter than that of the control group (P<0.05). The rate of swelling, pain, lingual bone plate injury and broken root of the experimental group were separately lower than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Lingual wedge shaped coronectomy of HIMTM has significant advantages in the extraction of HIMTM. It can reduce operation time, broken roots, fracture of lingual plate, postoperative swelling, pain and other surgical complications.
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    An analysis of the wall width before and after root canal therapy in mandibular second molars with C-shaped canals
    LI Gui-hong, XIE Si-jing, LIN Zi-tong, ZHANG Ting, TANG Xu-na, HU Qin-gang
    2023, 32 (4):  395-400.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.04.011
    Abstract ( 110 )   PDF (753KB) ( 97 )  
    PURPOSE: To measure the wall width in mandibular second molars with C-shaped canals before and after root canal therapy using cone-beam CT(CBCT). METHODS: A total of 55 mandibular second molars from 38 patients which met the criteria for inclusion at Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Affiliated Stomatological Hospital of Medical School of Nanjing University from January 2020 to July 2021 were analyzed.From this sample, ten teeth had been treated, while another 45 of them not. CT images of the teeth were reestablished by Mimics software 20.0. Then we made a section every 1mm perpendicular to the long axis of the teeth from apex to pulp floor. The first slice from apex to pulp chamber was named the slice 1. Along the slice 1 to crown 1 mm was called slice 1, and so forth. The wall thickness at different locations of all the slices was measured. The data was entered into SPSS 20.0 software package for analysis. RESULTS: Regardless of whether the teeth were treated or not, both the mesial and distal canal walls’ average width were thicker than 1mm in all slices. At the same time, the mesial and distal canal walls’ width were thicker than the width of buccal and lingual canal walls in all the slices from C-shaped root canal, except slices which were near pulp chamber(P<0.05). As for the C-shaped root canals without root canal therapy, the width of lingual wall in the slice 1 to 4, as well as apex third root, was thinner than 1 mm. The width of buccal canal wall was thicker than the width of lingual canal wall in all slices except slice 11 and 12. As for the C-shaped root canals with root canal therapy, the width of buccal canal wall in slice 1 to 5, equivalent of apex half root, and the width of lingual wall in the slice 1 to 7, amount to apex two-thirds of root, was thinner than 1 mm. The width of buccal canal wall was thicker than the width of lingual wall in all slices except slice 1 and 9. There was no significant difference between the distal canal walls' width of C-shaped canals with and without root canal therapy(P>0.05) . There was significant difference between the buccal canal walls' width of C-shaped canals with and without root canal therapy, as same as the mesial canal walls' width and the width of lingual canal wall (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The lingual canal walls’ width in apex third root of C-shaped root canal were thin before canal preparation. The buccal walls’ width in apex half root and the lingual canal walls’ in apex two-thirds of root of C-shaped root canal were thin after canal preparation.
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    Evaluation of the effect of secondary functional impression complete denture on improving oral health of edentulous patients
    YU Hao, GUO Xiao-jing, ZHONG Qun, WANG Jue
    2023, 32 (4):  401-404.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.04.012
    Abstract ( 125 )   PDF (926KB) ( 94 )  
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical effect of complete denture restoration in edentulous patients using secondary functional impression. METHODS: Complete denture restoration was performed in 433 edentulous patients using secondary functional impression. The Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) was used to evaluate patients' oral health-related quality of life before and after restoration. All patients were divided into 3 groups according to whether they had a history of denture restoration: no denture group(ND), removable partial denture group(RPD), complete denture group(CD). In CD group, 30 patients were asked to chew two-colour gum. The SDhue value was evaluated by using ViewGum software. SPSS 26.0 software package was used for data analysis. RESULTS: The oral health-related quality of life was improved in all the 3 groups after restoration, and the GOHAI index 1 month after restoration was significantly higher than that before restoration(P<0.05). In CD group, SDHue value of 30 patients after restoration was significantly lower than that before restoration(P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Secondary functional impression is simple and fast, and can improve the satisfaction of patients after complete denture restoration.
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    Effect of 4 kinds of prosthodontic materials on masticatory and gingival function
    WANG Yi-ting, WEN Shao-min, LI Xiao-hong, LI Wan-hui
    2023, 32 (4):  405-409.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.04.013
    Abstract ( 100 )   PDF (585KB) ( 83 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of 4 kinds of prosthodontic materials on masticatory and gingival function. METHODS: A total of 167 patients with dental defects who underwent prosthodontic treatment from October 2019 to January 2022 were collected. They were randomly divided into 4 groups with 41 cases in the pure titanium group, 40 cases in the cobalt-chromium alloy group, 43 cases in the nickel-chromium alloy group and 43 cases in the zirconium dioxide group. The curative effect and satisfaction degree after 6 months of treatment in 4 groups were recorded and compared. The masticatory function (chewing efficiency, bite force), gingival function[plaque index(PLI), gingival index(GI) and sulcus bleeding index(SBI)], gingival crevicular fluid inflammation-related indicators[tumor necrosis factor alpha(TNF-α), interleukin-6(IL-6), aspartate aminotransferase(AST) and alkaline phosphatase (alkaline phosphatase, ALP)] before and after treatment were measured and compared in 4 groups. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 20.0 software package. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in curative effect in 4 groups(P>0.05). Before and after treatment, there was no significant difference in mastication efficiency and bite force in 4 groups(P>0.05). Before treatment, there was no significant difference in PLI, GI, SBI, gingival crevicular fluid weight, TNF-α, IL-6, AST and ALP in gingival crevicular fluid in 4 groups(P>0.05). Compared with before treatment, PLI, GI and SBI in 4 groups were decreased after treatment (P<0.05), and the decrease was in the order of cobalt-chromium alloy group≈nickel-chromium alloy group<pure titanium group<zirconia dioxide group. Before treatment, there was no significant difference in the weight of gingival crevicular fluid, TNF-α, IL-6, AST and ALP in gingival crevicular fluid in 4 groups(P>0.05). The crevicular fluid weight, TNF-α, IL-6, AST and ALP in gingival crevicular fluid were significantly increased(P<0.05), and the increase was in the order of zirconia group<pure titanium group<cobalt-chromium alloy group≈nickel-chromium alloy group. There was no significant difference in restoration integrity and color satisfaction in 4 groups(P>0.05), but there was significant difference in marginal fitness and sensitivity satisfaction in 4 groups(P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Pure titanium, cobalt-chromium alloy, nickel-chromium alloy and zirconium dioxide can be used for the treatment of dentition defects, and they all can obtain satisfactory chewing function. In addition, zirconium dioxide restoration has the effect of improving gingival function and inflammation-related indicators of gingival crevicular fluid with a broader application prospect.
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    Effect of metformin combined with DPP-4 inhibitor on alveolar bone density in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontitis
    LIU Ke, AHEMAITI Aniwa, TUERNISAGULI Kebier, GULINUER Awut
    2023, 32 (4):  410-416.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.04.014
    Abstract ( 137 )   PDF (1053KB) ( 106 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of metformin combined with DPP-4 inhibitor on alveolar bone density in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontitis. METHODS: A total of 80 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontitis were selected and randomly divided into group A and group B by random number table, with 40 patients in each group. Group A (medication alone group): oral metformin and basic periodontal treatment; Group B (combination group): DPP-4 inhibitor (sitagliptin) was taken orally in addition to group A. Before treatment (T0) and 3 months (T1) and 6 months (T2) after treatment, alveolar bone mineral density (BDM), periodontal probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss(CAL), probing bleeding (BOP), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum phosphorus, serum calcium, adiponectin (ADP), leptin (LEP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (HS-CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) were detected. SPSS 23.0 software package was used for data analysis. RESULTS: Three and 6 months after treatment, PD, CAL, BOP and HbAlc in group B were significantly lower than those in group A(P< 0.05). BDM in group B was significantly higher than that in group A (P< 0.05). Compared with group A, the levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, Hs-CRP, TNF-α) and leptin in group B were significantly decreased, while the level of adiponectin was significantly increased (P< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Metformin combined with DPP-4 inhibitor can increase alveolar bone density in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontitis, effectively improve periodontal clinical and serum biochemical indicators, and reduce periodontal inflammation.
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    Application of PAR index and cephalometrics for camouflage therapy and orthodontic-orthognathic surgery in adults with skeletal Class Ⅲ malocclusion
    LI Xin-ran, CHEN Bin, LI Meng, DU Chen, MENG Jian
    2023, 32 (4):  417-421.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.04.015
    Abstract ( 98 )   PDF (550KB) ( 75 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate the value of PAR index combined with cephalometry in evaluating the efficacy of mild to moderate skeletal Class Ⅲ malocclusion. METHODS: Sixty-five adult patients with skeletal Class Ⅲ malocclusion were selected and divided into group C (camouflage therapy) and group S (orthodontic-orthognathic surgery)according to different treatment methods. PAR index and cephalometric values before and after treatment in each group were compared, and then the differences of PAR index and cephalometric values before and after treatment between the two groups were compared. The clinical effect was evaluated by these indexes. SPSS 25.0 software package was used for data analysis. RESULTS: In PAR index, the tooth alignment, occlusion, overjet, overbite, midline, total score and weighted total score after treatment of both groups were all significantly lower than those before treatment(P<0.001). The differences of left and right buccal bite and total posterior bite of group S before and after treatment was significantly larger than those of group C(P<0.001). In cephalometric measurement, the differences of SNA, NA-PA, L1-NB, U1-L1, U1-SN and L1-MP in group C before and after treatment were significantly different(P<0.05), while those in group S before and after treatment were SNA, SNB, ANB, NP-FH, NA-PA, L1-NB, U1-L1U1-SN and L1-MP(P<0.001). The differences of SNB, ANB and NP-FH before and after treatment in group S were significantly greater than those in group C(P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Both treatments are effective for adult patients with mild to moderate skeletal Class Ⅲ malocclusion. The effect of orthodontic-orthognathic treatment is better than camouflage therapy in occlusal relationship of posterior teeth, the position of mandible relative to cranium, the mutual position of upper jaw and lower jaw relative to cranium, and the degree of mandibular convexity. PAR index combined with cephalometric measurement can effectively judge the clinical effect of adult patients with mild to moderate skeletal Class Ⅲ malocclusion, which is a good evaluation method.
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    Effect of Twin-block in adolescents with mandibular retrusion and normal anterior overjet
    MA Xiao-qing, LU Wen, YE Mao, XING Yun-bo, QIAN Wen-hao, ZHANG Ling
    2023, 32 (4):  422-427.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.04.016
    Abstract ( 108 )   PDF (2043KB) ( 91 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate the therapeutic effect of modified fixed Twin-block on patients whose mandible was retruded and anterior overjet was normal. METHODS: Thirty-six adolescents with mandibular retrusion and normal anterior overjet were selected. The goal of occlusal reconstruction was to move the soft tissue pogonion forward to the zero meridian(0°). Fixed Twin-block combined with the mini-implants on the mandibular buccal shelf was used to promote mandibular growth. After 12 months, the appliances were removed step by step to observe the stability of the jaw relationship. Fixed orthodontic treatment was performed to achieve ideal occlusion and coordinated profile. SPSS 13.0 software package was used for Student's t test. RESULTS: The length of mandibular body increased significantly which facilitated the forward movement of the soft tissue pogonion, and the profile changed from convex to straight. Comparison of the results before and after Twin-block treatment showed that Co-Gn, SNB, U1-SN, U6-0°, U1-0°, U1-L1, anterior overbite, anterior overjet, Pog's-0°, L1-0° and lower anterior facial height changed significantly (P<0.05). Comparison of the results before and after fixed orthodontic treatment showed that PP-MP, SN-MP, U6-0°, IMPA, L1-0°, U1-SN, U1-L1, anterior overbite and overjet changed significantly(P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Modified fixed Twin-block combined with mini-implants on the mandibular buccal shelf can effectively stimulate the mandibular growth and improve the lateral profile of patients with mandibular retrusion and normal overjet.
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    Effects of metal materials for oral fixation and restoration on magnetic resonance imaging artifacts and the health of tissues around dental implants
    XIE Shu-juan, WANG Lin-hu, ZHOU Rong-hua
    2023, 32 (4):  428-431.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.04.017
    Abstract ( 87 )   PDF (509KB) ( 79 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of metal materials for oral fixation and restoration on magnetic resonance imaging artifacts and the health of tissues around dental implants. METHODS: A total of 153 patients undergoing fixed oral restoration were selected from May 2018 to June 2020. They were divided according to the random number table method into group A (cobalt-chromium alloy, n=31), group B (nickel-chromium alloy, n=32), group C (titanium alloy, n=28), group D (pure titanium, n=29) and group E (gold alloy, n=33). The largest area of metal crown artifacts and the number of layers of the 5 groups were compared. The probing depth(PD), modified plaque index(mPLI), modified sulcus bleeding index(mSBI) and papilla index(PI) 6 months after restoration were evaluated.The data were statistically analyzed with SPSS 22.0 software package. RESULTS: One-way ANOVA showed that the largest area of metal crown artifacts and the number of layers involved in the 5 groups had significant differences(P<0.05). Pairwise comparison showed that the largest area of metal crown artifacts, and the number of involved layers in group E were significantly lower than those in groups A, B, C, and D(P<0.05). One-way ANOVA showed that there was no significant difference in PD, mPLI, mSBI and PI among 5 groups (P>0.05). Pairwise comparison showed that there was no significant difference in PD, mPLI, mSBI and PI between group A and group B, C, D and E (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The artifacts produced by metal materials for oral fixation and restoration are closely related to the types of metal materials. Among them, cobalt-chromium alloys produce the largest artifacts, and gold alloys produce the smallest artifacts. The use of metal materials for oral fixation and restoration will not affect the health of tissues around dental implants.
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    Investigation and analysis of the current situation of dental technical professionals in Shanghai medical institutions
    ZHOU Yi-heng, LU Hai-xia, WANG Li, JIN Lei-hui
    2023, 32 (4):  432-436.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.04.018
    Abstract ( 96 )   PDF (720KB) ( 80 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate the current situation of dental technical personnel team in medical institutions in Shanghai, and to provide reference for the construction of dental technical discipline and development of dental personnel team in the National Center for Stomatology (Shanghai). METHODS: Random sample questionnaire and expert interviews were used to find out the awareness, satisfaction and improvement suggestions of dental technicians among physicians, nursing and medical technicians in medical institutions in Shanghai. RESULTS: Among the positions engaged in by dental technicians, dental prosthetic technician, dental radiology technician and laboratory technician were the three most important positions at present, 62.3% of doctors and nurses were satisfied with the work of dental technicians, while 56.2% of dental medical technicians were generally or relatively unsatisfied with their current work. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to increase training and education opportunities for dental technicians, improve the talent echelon, introduce high-level talents, improve the working environment and treatment, broaden promotion channels, strengthen communication and exchange with medical care, and build a first-class medical technical personnel team that is compatible with the clinical level of stomatology.
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    Dental Education
    Construction and application of virtual simulation teaching platform for in-hospital emergency nursing of craniofacial injury patients
    GAO Xiao-yue, DAI Jing-jing, YUAN Wei-jun, GAO Xiao-yan, SUN Yin-jie, HOU Li-li
    2023, 32 (4):  437-442.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.04.019
    Abstract ( 82 )   PDF (1566KB) ( 94 )  
    PURPOSE: To construct a virtual simulation teaching platform for in-hospital emergency nursing of craniofacial injury patients by virtual simulation technology, and to evaluate its application effect. METHODS: Through virtual reality, animation, human-computer interaction and other technologies, a 3D experiment scene based on high simulation virtual human was constructed to reproduce the virtual rescue scenes of craniofacial injury patients, such as emergency reception, first-aid cooperation, massive hemorrhage rescue cooperation, and tracheotomy cooperation in emergency rescue of sudden airway obstruction, and exercise modules and assessment modules were set. In the virtual simulation platform, the students used the holistic nursing theory and the PDCA cycle method to observe, evaluate and care for craniofacial injury patients. Preliminary evaluation of the platform was carried out in the training of 62 dental nurses. RESULTS: The virtual simulation platform could improve students' comprehensive first-aid ability for craniofacial injury patients. The item with the highest satisfaction rate for the virtual simulation platform was the consistency between the content of the virtual simulation platform and the theoretical course (the satisfaction rate was 91.9%), and the lowest satisfaction rate was the convenience of the virtual simulation platform operation and the page setting (the satisfaction rate was 80.6%). The evaluation module of the virtual simulation platform showed that the highest score of the comprehensive evaluation was 97, the lowest score was 56, and the average score was 80.2. CONCLUSIONS: The virtual simulation teaching platform for in-hospital first aid of craniofacial injury patients can create an immersive learning mode, provide an intuitive rescue experience to the students, and improve their comprehensive first-aid ability.
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    Case Reports
    A case report of combined aesthetic diagnosis and treatment of adult concave deformity
    XU Wei-ning, WANG Hong-hong, ZHANG Qin-chen
    2023, 32 (4):  443-448.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.04.020
    Abstract ( 86 )   PDF (1869KB) ( 83 )  
    The non-surgical treatment of adult concave deformity can be achieved by interdisciplinary solution, which includes condylar relocation, fixed orthodontic, and functional occlusion smile design anterior prosthesis. In this study, an adult patient with concave deformity were treated by maxillary occlusal splint, conventional fixed brackets, and upper anterior teeth porcelain veneers to lead mandibular condyle to centric relation, to correct the dental arches for functional occlusion, and to gain the final desired esthetic achievement after treatments.
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