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    25 April 2023, Volume 32 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Expert Review
    A reflectional insight into orthodontic theoretical renovation and technological innovation
    SHEN Gang
    2023, 32 (2):  113-119.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.02.001
    Abstract ( 143 )   PDF (867KB) ( 147 )  
    Orthodontics, among other specialties in dentistry, remains most dynamic and vigorous in upgrading and reforming its fundamental doctrines and clinical technologies. Orthodontic specialty in China has played a leading role in recent years in reshaping fundamental theories and in creating cutting-edge therapeutic modalities. The newly developed diagnostic classification system, a complementary addition to that of Angle's, not only defines the natures, but also identifies the developmental mechanisms of malocclusions. Orthopedic therapy aiming to relocate the mandible before correcting the dentition is emerging as an indispensable treatment mode to malocclusions concurring with mandibular deviation. Whilst correlations exist between malocclusion and TMD susceptibility and incidence, the specifically designed orthopedic and orthodontic approaches have proven effective in managing cases inflicted by TMD conditions. Innovative efforts that create the GS products, have redefined the clear appliances much more beyond merely clear aligners, thus further pushing the boundaries of both the indications and clinical use for clear appliances.
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    Original Articles
    Study on enhanced sensitivity to DNA damage in POLQ knocking-down salivary of adenoid cystic carcinoma-83 cells
    BAI Han, LIU Han, ZHU Lei, LIU Chao, LI Nan, XIAO Jing
    2023, 32 (2):  120-125.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.02.002
    Abstract ( 123 )   PDF (1139KB) ( 86 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of POLQ inhibition on proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle, DNA damage and repair in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma-83 (SACC-83) cell line. METHODS: POLQ knocking-down SACC-83 cells were constructed using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) transient transfection, and the inhibition efficiency was detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot. DNA damage in SACC-83 cells was induced by different concentration of DNA damage agent etoposide (VP-16-213), and the levels of γH2AX expression were detected by Western blot to evaluate DNA double-strain breaks. Under different concentration of etoposide-induced DNA damage condition, CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the effect of POLQ inhibition on cell proliferation in SACC-83 cell line. Under etoposide-induced DNA damage condition, plate colony assay was performed to detect the effect of POLQ inhibition on cell clone formation ability in SACC-83 cell line, and flow cytometry was used to detect the effect of POLQ inhibition on cell cycle in SACC-83 cell line. Furthermore, under etoposide-induced DNA damage condition, Western blot was used to analyze POLQ, γH2AX, RAD51 and PARP1 protein expression. SPSS 20.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The mRNA and protein expression of POLQ was inhibited by shRNA transient transfection. Increased γH2AX in SACC-83 was closely coupled with increased concentrations of etoposide. The results of CCK-8 assay showed that POLQ knocking-down suppressed cell proliferation ability in SACC-83 cell line, and the inhibitory effect was mitigated with increased concentration of etoposide(P<0.001). The result of plate colony assay demonstrated that under etoposide-induced DNA damage condition, compared with the control group, POLQ knocking-down suppressed cell colony ability in SACC-83 cell line(P<0.001). Moreover, the results of flow cytometry demonstrated that under etoposide-induced DNA damage conditions, compared with the control group, POLQ knocking-down induced S phase arrest(P<0.01). Mechanistically, the results of Western blot showed that POLQ regulated DNA damage and repair by promoting expression of γH2AX(P<0.05) and homologous recombination (HR) pathway-related protein RAD51 (P<0.05), respectively, and down-regulating the alternative non-homologous end joining (alt-NHEJ) pathway-related protein PARP1(P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: POLQ knocking-down promotes the sensitivity of SACC-83 cell line to DNA damage.
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    Effects of Fusobacterium nucleus derived outer membrane vesicles on claudin-4 expression in oral epithelial cells
    YANG Cheng-long, YANG Meng, WANG Yu-feng, SONG Chen-cheng, DU Guan-huan, TANG Guo-yao
    2023, 32 (2):  126-131.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.02.003
    Abstract ( 114 )   PDF (1295KB) ( 106 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) secreted by Fusobacterium nucleatum (F.n) on Claudin-4 of human oral keratinocytes (HOK) and oral epithelial barrier function. METHODS: Fusobacterium nucleatum was cultured under anaerobic conditions. The OMVs were extracted by dialysis and characterized by nanosight and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). HOK were stimulated with OMVs at different mass concentrations(0-100 μg/mL) for 12 h, and stimulated with 100 μg/mL OMVs for 6 h and 12 h respectively. The expression of Claudin-4 at gene and protein level was analyzed by RT-qPCR and Western blotting. Inverted fluorescence microscope was used to observe co-localization of HOK and OMVs and localization and distribution of Claudin-4 protein. Human oral epithelial barrier was constructed by Transwell apical chamber. Transepithelial electrical resistance(TER) of barrier was measured with a transmembrane resistance measuring instrument(EVOM2), and the permeability of the barrier was evaluated by transmittance of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran(FD-4). Statistical analysis was performed with GraphPad Prism 8.0 software package. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the expression of Claudin-4 at protein and gene level in the HOK of OMVs stimulated group was significantly reduced (P<0.05), and immunofluorescence showed that the continuity of Claudin-4 fluorescence among cells was destroyed. OMVs stimulation decreased TER value of oral epithelial barrier(P<0.05) and increased the transmittance of FD-4(P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: OMVs derived from Fusobacterium nucleatum may damage oral mucosal epithelial barrier function through inhibiting the expression of Claudin-4.
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    Regulation mechanism of resveratrol on odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells
    LI Zong-yu, LI Xiao-lin, WEI Peng-gong, QU Liu, QIU Li-hong, YU Ya-qiong
    2023, 32 (2):  132-136.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.02.004
    Abstract ( 126 )   PDF (720KB) ( 80 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate whether resveratrol promotes odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells(DPSCs) by up-regulating the expression of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) and activating β-catenin signaling pathway. METHODS: Different concentrations of resveratrol(0, 10, 15, 20 and 50 μmol/L) were used to treat DPSCs for 7 days and 14 days, and cell proliferative activity was detected by CCK-8. After odontogenic differentiation induced by 15 μmol/L resveratrol for 7 days, alkaline phosphatase(ALP) staining was performed and real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR(qRT-PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), dentin sialophosphoprotein(DSPP) and dentin matrix protein-1(DMP-1) in DPSCs. Western blot was used to detect the expression of SIRT1 in DPSCs on a specific day (0, 3rd, 5th, 7th and 14th) after differentiation induction. Western blot was also used to detect the expression of SIRT1 and activated β-catenin during odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs treated by 15 μmol/L resveratrol for 7 days. The experimental data was analyzed with GraphPad Prism 9 software package. RESULTS: 15 μmol/L resveratrol had no significant effect on proliferation of DPSCs on the 7th and 14th day; 15 μmol/L resveratrol promoted odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs and up-regulated mRNA expression of RUNX2, DSPP, and DMP-1 in DPSCs; the expression of SIRT1 was the highest on the 7th day during odontogenic differentiation induction. Resveratrol resulted in the increasing protein expressions of SIRT1 and activated β-catenin when DPSCs was induced to odontogenic differentiation for 7 days. CONCLUSIONS: Resveratrol promotes odontogenic differentiation of human DPSCs by up-regulating the expression of SIRT1 protein and activating β-catenin signaling pathway.
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    Effects of chitosan oligosaccharide on bone metabolism and IKK/NF-κB pathway in rats with osteoporosis and periodontitis
    YU Xiao-fei, WANG Xin-yang, LI Bin, CHEN Yao-zhong
    2023, 32 (2):  137-142.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.02.005
    Abstract ( 105 )   PDF (888KB) ( 82 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of chitosan oligosaccharide on bone metabolism and IKK/NF-κB pathway in mice with osteoporosis and periodontitis. METHODS: Thirty rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, with 10 rats in each group. They were divided into control group, ovariectomized periodontitis group and chitosan oligosaccharide treatment group. Except for the control group, the other two groups were ovariectomized and smeared with Porphyromonas gingivalis fluid to establish the model of osteoporosis with periodontitis. Four weeks after ligation, the rats in chitosan oligosaccharide treatment group were gavaged with 200 mg/kg chitosan oligosaccharide, and the other two groups were gavaged with equal volume of normal saline once a day for 90 days. The periodontal tissues of each group were observed before administration, and the bone mineral density of rats was detected by dual energy X-ray animal bone mineral density and body composition analysis system. After 90 days of administration, the bone mineral density was detected again. After administration, blood was collected from tail vein, and the contents of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone Gla protein (BGP) and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP5b) were measured by enzyme-linked immunodeficient assay. The gingival index and periodontal attachment loss of rats in each group were obtained by visual examination and exploratory examination. The maxilla was removed, and the distance from the enamel cementum boundary to the alveolar crest was measured to obtain alveolar bone absorption value. H-E staining was used to observe the pathology of maxilla in each group. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the nuclear factors in periodontal tissue of rats in each group. SPSS 22.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Before administration, the gums of the control group were pink without bleeding, and the gums of the other two groups were red and swollen with slight bleeding. After administration, compared with the control group, the bone mineral density, serum ALP, BGP of ovariectomized periodontitis group decreased significantly(P<0.05); while TRACP5b, gingival index, loss of periodontal attachment and alveolar bone resorption, NF-κB and IKK mRNA and protein expression in periodontal tissue increased significantly(P<0.05). Compared with the ovariectomized periodontitis group, the bone mineral density, serum ALP, BGP were significantly increased(P<0.05); while TRACP5b, gingival index, periodontal attachment loss and alveolar bone resorption, NF-κB and IKK mRNA and protein expression in periodontal tissue were significantly decreased (P<0.05). In the ovariectomized periodontitis group, the periodontal tissue combined with epithelium was separated from the tooth surface, the dental pocket was obvious and deep, and the height of alveolar bone decreased. Although dental pocket could be observed in the periodontal tissue of rats treated with chitosan oligosaccharide, it was not obvious, and new bone appeared around the alveolar bone. CONCLUSIONS: Chitosan oligosaccharide can induce biochemical indexes of bone metabolism to become normal, alleviate the symptoms of periodontitis, this may be related to the inhibition of IKK/NF-κB pathway by chitosan oligosaccharide.
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    Effect of various storage methods on shear bond strength of enamel of bovine teeth
    LI Li, TAN Jun-yan, CHEN Wen-bin, WANG Sun, WANG Yu-bo
    2023, 32 (2):  143-146.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.02.006
    Abstract ( 111 )   PDF (447KB) ( 100 )  
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various storage methods on shear bond strength of enamel of bovine teeth and find the storage condition that could preserve the similar bond strength as the freshly extracted teeth. METHODS: One hundred and thirty freshly extracted bovine teeth were divided into 13 groups. One was the reference group and 12 were the experimental group. Each group contained 10 teeth. Teeth in the reference group were operated on the same day as the teeth were extracted, while teeth in the experimental groups were stored in different methods (4% formaldehyde solution at 4 ℃, 23 ℃, 1% chloramine T at 4 ℃, 23 ℃, distilled water at 4 ℃, 23 ℃). After stored for 30 days and 90 days, the bovine teeth were taken out and then the shear bond strength was tested. The data were analyzed with SPSS 20.0 software package. RESULTS: The bovine teeth stored in 4% formaldehyde and 1% chloramine T at 23 ℃ and in distilled water at 4 ℃ achieved similar bond strength as freshly extracted teeth at 30 days and 90 days, and the bond strength did not change over time. The bovine teeth stored in 4% formaldehyde solution and 1% chloramine T at 4 ℃ at 30 days had higher shear bond strength than freshly extracted bovine teeth, but over time the bond strength reduced and reached the similar level at 90 days. The bovine teeth stored in distilled water at 23 ℃ obtained similar bond strength as freshly extracted teeth at 30 days but over time the bond strength reduced until 90 days. CONCLUSIONS: Bovine teeth stored in 4% formaldehyde solution and 1% chloramine T at 23 ℃ and in distilled water at 4 ℃ achieved similar bond strength as freshly extracted teeth and does not change over time. These three methods are recommended for storing bovine teeth.
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    Effect of circRASA2 targeting miR-543/TRAF6 axis on LPS-induced periodontal ligament cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation
    XIE Bing, YANG Zhen-yu, TANG Xu-na
    2023, 32 (2):  147-153.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.02.007
    Abstract ( 85 )   PDF (1956KB) ( 90 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate the possible role of circRASA2 in periodontitis and its potential regulatory mechanism. METHODS: Periodontitis cell model was established by lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced periodontal ligament cells(PDLCs). Cell proliferation activity was detected by CCK-8 assay, cell migration ability was detected by Transwell chamber assay, and the expression of osteogenic differentiation-related proteins in cells was detected by Western blot. The target miRNA of circRASA2 and its downstream target genes were predicted using the databases circinteractome and starBase, respectively, and the targeting relationship between the target genes was verified by dual-luciferase reporter gene experiment. GraphPad Prism 8.0 software package was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: circRASA2 was highly expressed in LPS-treated PDLCs cells. LPS-induced PDLCs cell proliferation activity, migration ability and osteogenic differentiation ability decreased, while knockdown of circRASA2 promoted proliferation, migration and osteogenic differentiation ability of PDLCs under LPS treatment. circRASA2 targeted and negatively regulated the expression of miR-543, and overexpression of miR-543 promoted proliferation, migration and osteogenic differentiation of PDLCs under LPS treatment. TRAF6 was a downstream target gene of miR-543, knockdown of circRASA2 down-regulated the expression of TRAF6 through the sponge action of miR-543. Overexpression of TRAF6 reversed the promotion of circRASA2 knockdown on proliferation, migration and osteogenic differentiation of PDLCs. CONCLUSIONS: circRASA2 accelerated the pathological process of periodontitis in vitro through miR-543/TRAF6 axis, and might improve periodontitis by targeting down the expression of circRASA2.
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    Experimental study on the optical properties of different-translucency zirconia-ceramic restorations
    ZOU Yan, XIONG Pei-wen, ZHU Hong-shui
    2023, 32 (2):  154-157.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.02.008
    Abstract ( 192 )   PDF (524KB) ( 78 )  
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to measure the color difference(△E) on titanium alloy background and translucency parameter(TP) of four kinds of zirconia-based all-ceramic specimens, providing a clinical reference for restoring grayish abutment. METHODS: Four groups with a total of 24 ceramic specimens were fabricated to a final specimen dimension of 14 mm×14 mm×1.5 mm, two kinds of zirconia with different translucency(Beitefu high-translucency, Cercon low-translucency)and their corresponding body porcelain at the shade of A2 were used as followed:high-translucency zirconia sintered dentine porcelain(Group A),low-translucency zirconia sintered dentine porcelain(Group B),high-translucency zirconia sintered opaque and dentine porcelain(Group C),low-translucency zirconia sintered opaque and dentine porcelain(Group D).The color parameters of the specimens under two backgrounds (titanium alloy and shade A3 light-activated resin-based composite) were measured by Shade Eye NCC colorimeter, then the △E value was determined by the relevant equations. The color parameters under black and white background were measured, and TP value was calculated. The experimental data were analyzed with SPSS 17.0 software package. RESULTS: There was significant difference of the TP value and the △E value among four groups specimens(P<0.05), the TP value was arranged as follows: group D<group C<group B<group A. The specimen used with opaque porcelain showed significantly reduced translucency. The △E value was arranged as follows :group D < group C < group B < 1.5 < 2 <group A, the △E value of group A cannot be accepted in clinic. CONCLUSIONS: The restoration of low-translucency zirconia sintered translucency veneering ceramic has better translucency, with value of △E<1.5 when used on the grayish abutment, which has a good aesthetic performance.
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    Chemerin mediated neutrophil infiltration in oral squamous cell carcinoma and predicted poor prognosis
    HU Xiao-yuan, WANG Ning, ZHANG Xiao-ye, YANG Qian, GAO Fei, WANG Cheng-qin, SHANG Wei, XIANG Feng-gang, FENG Yuan-yong
    2023, 32 (2):  158-165.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.02.009
    Abstract ( 124 )   PDF (1838KB) ( 86 )  
    PURPOSE: To explore the effect of Chemerin in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissue on neutrophils infiltration and its possible molecular mechanism. METHODS: The relationship between Chemerin expression and neutrophils density was assessed via double immunohistochemistry staining.The chemotactic effect of Chemerin on neutrophils in OSCC was detected by transwell assay, real-time quantitative PCR(qRT-PCR), Western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) and flow cytometry. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 23.0 software package. The relationship between Chemerin expression and neutrophils density was assessed using Spearman rank correlation analysis. ChemR23 knockout efficiency and chemotactic index were calculated by ANOVA. The relationship between Chemerin expression, neutrophils density and clinicopathological factors was analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. Kaplan-Meier test and Log rank test were used for survival analysis, and risk factors affecting the survival of OSCC patients was assessed using Cox regression model. RESULTS: Double immunohistochemistry staining showed that overexpression of Chemerin was significantly correlated with increased neutrophils infiltration in OSCC(P=0.023), and strong Chemerin expression and high neutrophils density were associated with higher clinical stage(P<0.001), cervical lymph node metastasis (P<0.001) and tumor recurrence (P=0.002). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients in the strong Chemerin expression + high neutrophils density group had shortened cancer-related overall survival time and disease-free survival time compared with the other two groups. Transwell assay results showed that both OSCC cells and R-Chemerin had a significant chemotactic effect on dHL-60 cells; knockdown of ChemR23 suppressed Chemerin-induced chemotaxis to dHL-60 cells. CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of Chemerin in OSCC tissue chemoattracts more neutrophils to tumor sites through its receptor ChemR23 and is related to poor clinical prognosis.
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    Evaluation of the efficacy of Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of 80 patients with oral mucosal venous malformation
    ZHAO Ning, SUN Li-ying, LI Yun-ling, MA Chuan, CAI Zhen, ZHU Chao
    2023, 32 (2):  166-171.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.02.010
    Abstract ( 148 )   PDF (951KB) ( 100 )  
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of Nd:YAG laser treatment for venous malformations. METHODS: Eighty patients with oral mucosal venous malformations underwent one or more Nd:YAG laser treatments, and photographs of the lesions before and after laser treatment were collected and compared, patients' satisfaction were assessed using visual analog scale (VAS). SPSS 22.0 software package was used for data analysis. RESULTS: A total of 58 cases were cured in 80 patients, 21 cases showed remarkable improvement. Nine patients(11.25%) experienced adverse effects after laser therapy, including atrophic scars in 2 patients, oral mucosal ulcers in 4 patients, transient hyperpigmentation in 2 patients, and transient hypopigmentation in 1 patient, which met the expected response to effective therapy, and the follow-up results showed that most patients achieved maximum satisfaction values. CONCLUSIONS: Nd:YAG laser is an effective and safe treatment for oral mucosal venous malformation with definite efficacy and few side effects, which is worthy of popularization and application.
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    Changes and significance of serum prealbumin expression in patients with oral and maxillofacial space infections
    SUN Yue, LI Fang, ZHANG Kai, ZHENG Ji-wei, QIN Ying, SUN Jin-hu
    2023, 32 (2):  172-176.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.02.011
    Abstract ( 99 )   PDF (801KB) ( 64 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate the changes of serum prealbumin (PA) expression level in patients with oral and maxillofacial space infections and its significance. METHODS: Patients hospitalized at the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University from January 2020 to September 2021 were selected and divided into infected and non-infected group. One hundred and twenty-one patients with moderate to severe oral and maxillofacial gap infections were in the infected group, and 128 patients without infection were in the non-infected group. In the infected group, PA, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC) levels and related clinical parameters were measured at 1, 3 and 7 d of admission. In the non-infected group, PA, hs-CRP and WBC levels were measured at 1 d of admission. SPSS 23.0 software package was used to statistically analyze the relationship between PA levels and various laboratory and clinical parameters. RESULTS: PA levels in the infected group were significantly lower than those in the non-infected group at 1 d of admission. PA levels in the infected group showed an overall increasing trend at different time points, and PA was negatively correlated with pain intensity and positively correlated with mouth opening(P<0.05). The diagnostic sensitivity was 90.91% and the specificity was 92.97% for PA≤19.85 mg/dL, which can be used as the best diagnostic threshold. The diagnostic efficacy can be improved when combined with hs-CRP and WBC. Logistic regression analysis showed that low PA level was an independent risk factor for patients requiring intensive care after surgery (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: PA is an effective tool for the early diagnosis and evaluation of the efficacy of oral and maxillofacial interstitial infections, and can be used as a reference indicator to assess prognosis.
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    Three-dimensional gingival morphology in the aesthetic zone of maxillary anterior teeth: a cone-beam CT analysis
    WANG Wen-li, FU Ya-ting, LIU Hua, MA Xiao
    2023, 32 (2):  177-182.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.02.012
    Abstract ( 164 )   PDF (822KB) ( 89 )  
    PURPOSE: To measure and investigate the relationship of three-dimensional gingival morphology on the labial side of the maxillary anterior teeth by using cone-beam CT(CBCT) in conjunction with a novel radiocontrast agent. METHODS: Thirty periodontal healthy subjects were enrolled. The composition of light-cured gingival barrier resin and iohexol injection was applied to the measurement area, then a positioning wire was set up, and CBCT was used to assess supracrestal gingiva tissue (SGT), gingiva thickness (GT) and width of keratinized gingiva (KGW). The differences in each parameter between different gingival biotypes were compared. SPSS 25.0 software package was used for data analysis. RESULTS: The mean distance of SGT was greater for central incisors than canines (P<0.05). The central incisors had the thickest GT in the maxillary anterior region, while the canines had the thinnest(P<0.01). The GT of male central and lateral incisors was significantly thicker than that of females(P<0.05), and the KGW was significantly wider than that of canines (P<0.05). GT- SGT, KGW- SGT and GT- KGW all had a positive correlation (r=0.315, 0.287,0.406, P<0.01). The thick gingival type was greater than the thin gingival type in the KGW of lateral incisors and canines and the SGT height of canines (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There were significant differences in the measuring results of GT, KGW, and SGT in the maxillary anterior region under different gingival biotypes, and individualized treatment strategies can be formulated based on gingival biotypes.
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    Analysis of the use status of internet outpatient in stomatological departments based on AI follow-up
    TAO Mao-mao, LIU Jun, LIAO Qian, WANG Xu-dong
    2023, 32 (2):  183-187.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.02.013
    Abstract ( 153 )   PDF (657KB) ( 64 )  
    PURPOSE: To analyze the use status and satisfaction of the follow-up patients, and explore the construction of internet medical service model and platform in stomatology. METHODS: Patients who visited the internet clinic of stomatology from January to June, 2021 were selected. After diagnosis and treatment, they were followed up by AI intelligent voice with self-designed questionnaire. SPSS 21.0 software was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 372 valid questionnaires were collected. The male-to-female ratio of oral patients was 1.25:1, with an average age of 35.96 years. Most of them had a bachelor's degree or above, and the patients were mainly from the Yangtze River Delta. 53.76% of patients needed doctors to prescribe drugs. 81.72% of the dental patients believed that the consultation process of internet clinic was convenient, and 79.83% of patients perceived that the system operation of internet clinic was convenient. Binary logistic regression showed that digital literacy, convenience of medical treatment process were significantly related to the satisfaction of internet outpatient service, while gender, education level, online medical treatment duration and convenience of system operation were not related. CONCLUSIONS: Internet medical treatment in stomatology is feasible, but it is still necessary to break through limitations and further innovate service function. Internet outpatients are mainly young and middle-aged, but it is still necessary to care for the special group of the elderly. It is necessary to further optimize the process, upgrade the system and innovate management, strengthen policy support and incentive mechanism, and promote the transformation of medical service mode in stomatology.
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    Comparison of clinical effects of different irrigant solutions combined with different agitation techniques in the treatment of chronic apical periodontitis with fistula
    LIU Hui-nan, ZHANG Fu-hua, PU Zhuo-guang
    2023, 32 (2):  188-192.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.02.014
    Abstract ( 121 )   PDF (625KB) ( 93 )  
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of combination of auxiliary irrigation technology and root canal irrigation solution in the treatment of chronic apical periodontitis with fistula, and try to seek a more effective and minimally invasive therapeutic strategy. METHODS: One hundred and fifty patients with fistulous chronic apical periodontitis who were diagnosed in Hefei Stomatological Hospital from January 2021 to January 2022 were randomly divided into 6 groups, 25 cases in each group. The 6 groups were as follows, group A: 0.5%NaOCl +ultrasonically activated irrigation; Group B: 1.0%NaOCl+ultrasonically activated irrigation; Group C: 2.0%CHX+ultrasonically activated irrigation; Group D: 0.5%NaOCl+sonic activation; Group E: 1.0%NaOCl+sonic activation; Group F: 2.0%CHX+sonic activation. The fistula healing time, treatment effect and postoperative pain were observed in each group. The data were analyzed with SPSS 20.0 software package. RESULTS: In terms of fistula healing, the 10-day fistula healing rate of group E and group F was higher than that of group A and group D,and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05); but there was no significant difference between group E and group F (P>0.05). The effective rate at 1 month after operation in group A was lower, and the difference was significant (P<0.05). In terms of postoperative pain, the VAS score of group A was lower than that of group E and group F at all time points, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In the treatment of chronic apical periodontitis with fistula, 1.0% NaOCl or 2.0% CHX combined with ultrasonically activated irrigation or sonic activation obtain a better short-term effect,of which the sonic activation group can also obtain early healing of the fistula, but the incidence of postoperative pain is higher when sonic activation is used.
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    Clinical study of a adjustable movable retractor for maxillary labially inverted impacted central incisor
    ZHANG Wei, CHEN Wei, CHEN Zhi-fang
    2023, 32 (2):  193-197.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.02.015
    Abstract ( 114 )   PDF (1202KB) ( 87 )  
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the orthodontic treatment outcome of a new adjustable movable retractor for patients with maxillary labially inverted impacted central incisors. METHODS: Ten patients, aged 7 to 10 years, who had a maxillary labially inverted impacted central incisor, were treated using a new adjustable movable retractor. Cone-beam CT(CBCT) was taken before treatment and after treatment immediately. Pulp electrical activity test and periodontal probing were performed after treatment. The parameters of the treated incisors and contralateral ones served as controls were compared.SPSS 23.0 software package was used for data analysis. RESULTS: The success rate of treatment in 10 patients was 100%. The mean duration of treatment was(8.60±1.26) months. There were no loosening, gingival swelling and redness, periodontal pockets, and pulp necrosis in the treatment group. However, the labial gingival height of the treatment group was (10.58±0.45) mm, significantly higher than that of the control group [(9.47±0.31) mm]. The growth and development level of the treatment group was higher than that of the control group during traction. The root length[(2.80±1.09) mm] and apical foramen [(1.79±0.59) mm] of the treatment group were higher than those of the control group[(1.84±0.97) mm and (0.96±0.40) mm]. Before treatment, the root growth of the treatment group was retarded. The root length of the treatment group[(7.28±1.03) mm] was shorter than that of the control group[(9.80 ±1.46) mm]; meanwhile, the apical foramen width of the treatment group[(2.18±0.63) mm] was larger than that of the control group[(1.26±0.40) mm]. After treatment, the root length [(10.08±0.63) mm] of the treatment group was still shorter than that of the control group [(11.75±0.90) mm]. The labial alveolar bone level of the treatment group [(1.77±0.37) mm] was higher than that of control group[(1.25±0.26) mm]. The palatal alveolar bone level of treatment group[(1.23±0.21) mm] was also slight higher than that of the control group[(1.05±0.15) mm]. The thickness of the alveolar bone in the treatment group[(1.49±0.31) mm] was thinner than that in the control group[(1.80±0.11) mm]. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of the new adjustable movable retractor for maxillary labially inverted impacted central incisor is reliable. Traction therapy can promote root development, and the periodontal and endodontic condition is well after treatment.
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    Evaluation of the effect of cattle calcined bone grafting material to repair alveolar bone defect after tooth extraction
    JU Jia, YANG Chi, WU He-ming, ZHAO Ji-hong, CHENG Li-fei, ZHANG Huan, FENG Bin, HU Kai-jin
    2023, 32 (2):  198-202.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.02.016
    Abstract ( 159 )   PDF (629KB) ( 88 )  
    PURPOSE: To verify the efficacy and safety of calcined cattle bone grafting material in filling alveolar bone defect after tooth extraction. METHODS: A randomized, bind, parallel, positive-control multicenter clinical trial was conducted. A total of 280 subjects were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (calcined cattle bone group) or control group (Bio-Oss group) equally. The main efficacy indicator was the imaging changes 24 weeks after material implantation. Secondary efficacy indicators were wound healing, rejection, bone metabolism, post-filling symptoms and signs of bone infection. The safety of material was assessed by the incidence of adverse events and serious adverse events. SAS 8.2 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 280 cases were included, of them 267 cases completed the study while 13 cases fell off. The effective rate of FAS(PPS) was 90.58%(97.46%) in the experimental group and 87.05% (95.04%) in the control group. The difference of effective rate between the experimental group and control group (95%CI) was 3.53% (-3.88%, 10.94%) of FAS, 2.42% (-2.38%, 7.22%) of PPS, and there was no significant difference between the two groups. The incision healing of the two groups was good, and the incidence of rejection, bone infection signs, post-filling symptoms and bone metabolic changes was very low. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups, and no serious adverse events related to the study materials occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of calcined cattle bone grafting material in filling alveolar bone defect after tooth extraction is not inferior to that of Bio-Oss, and it is safe and effective for alveolar bone defect repair.
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    Application of 3D printing modified tooth-supported cyst plug in decompression of mandibular cystic lesions
    KOU Peng, LI Ying-mei, LI Zhi-ping, MENG Jian
    2023, 32 (2):  203-208.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.02.017
    Abstract ( 178 )   PDF (1849KB) ( 107 )  
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the application value of 3D printing modified dental support cyst plug in fenestration of large jaw cystic lesions. METHODS: Forty patients with mandibular cystic disease in Xuzhou Central Hospital from October 2019 to April 2021 were selected. They were randomly divided into experimental group(3D printing group) and control group (traditional plug group), with 20 cases in each group. All enrolled patients underwent preoperative digital modeling of cystic lesions of the jaw, obtained the cystic cavity volume data of preoperative lesions, designed the windowing site according to the plan and performed decompression for jaw cysts. Three days after surgery, the patient's postoperative CBCT and Oral-scan data in the experimental group was obtained, and a digitally modified tooth-supported cyst plug with porous column channel was designed, and titanium alloy material for 3D printing was selected. In the control group, the plug was manually molded by experienced physicians. The visual analogue scale(VAS) score of pain, retention, mechanical properties of the plug and its effect on the adjacent teeth were compared between the two groups during the process of model preparation, and the changes of the cyst volume 1, 3 and 6 months after operation were compared between the two groups. SPSS 25.0 software package was used for data analysis. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the patients in the experimental group who made titanium alloy as printing material by digital impression complained more comfortable, and the mechanical strength and stability of the cyst plug were better than those in the control group(P< 0.05). There was no significant difference in retention between the two groups(P>0.05). The reduction rate of cyst volume in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the traditional plug group 3 and 6 months after operation(P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The modified tooth-supported titanium alloy cyst plug with digital 3D printing has good mechanical properties and stability. It has little damage to the abutment and no lateral force, and has the advantages of precision, individualization and comfort. The improved irrigation and injection channel can fully flush the cavity and speed up the narrowing of the cyst and reduce the waiting time before the second operation, which is worth promoting in clinical practice.
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    Effects of three sequential occlusal adjustment methods by articulating papers on the characteristics of implant delayed occlusion for single molar
    LIANG Yan-ting, XIE Ping, LI Qing, QIN Meng-ting, LI Yan-ling, DENG Min
    2023, 32 (2):  209-213.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.02.018
    Abstract ( 101 )   PDF (661KB) ( 83 )  
    PURPOSE: To compare the effects of three occlusal adjustment methods in different sequences by articulating paper on the delayed occlusal characteristics of single molars. METHODS: Thirty-two implants of first molars were divided into group A(n=12), group B (n=12) and group C (n=12) by sequential adjustment according to random number means, and (100+40), (100+50+30) and (100+40+20) μm sequence occlusal papers were used for occlusal adjustment, respectively. TeeTester was used to measure the delay time and force ratio between prosthesis and adjacent teeth at restoration day, 3 and 6 months after restoration, and to record the number of cases readjusting in each group during follow-up. SPSS 25.0 software package was used for data analysis. RESULTS: There were significant differences in delay time between groups at restoration day (P<0.05), and 3 and 6 months after restoration, delay time of group C was still smaller than that of group A and B (P<0.05). During follow-up, the time of each group showed a trend of shortening (P<0.05), but there was still delayed occlusion. Compared with group B and C, the force ratio in group A was lower at each time(P<0.05). The ratio of each group showed an increasing trend during follow-up (P<0.05), and group C showed the largest increase (P<0.001). The number of cases readjusting was relatively small in group A, and the most was in group C(P<0.05). There was positive correlation between delay time and force difference of prosthesis and adjacent teeth(P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The (100+40) μm sequence group had higher occlusal stability and better clinical applicability. The smaller the occlusal contact space realized by the sequential method, the greater the change might be, which requires close follow-up in clinical practice.
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    Analysis of clinical effects and risk factors of short implant followed up for 7-9 years
    YANG Jing-jing, MAO Wei-hua, YU Zheng-rong, WEI Hong-wu, GUO Shui-gen
    2023, 32 (2):  214-219.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.02.019
    Abstract ( 132 )   PDF (976KB) ( 76 )  
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term clinical efficacy of short implants and analyze the influencing factors of the survival rate. METHODS: A total of 178 patients who received implant therapy in the Department of Stomatology, the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University from January 2010 to December 2014 were selected, including 334 short implants of Bicon (implant length ≤6 mm). The basic condition, restoration design, short implant survival rate and complications were observed and analyzed. SPSS 24.0 software package was used for data analysis. RESULTS: The average follow-up time of short implants was 96±17 months. During the observation period, 20 implants failed, 1 implant had mechanical complications and 6 implants had biological complications. Based on the analysis of implants and patients, the long-term cumulative survival rate of short implants was 94.0%(over 5 years survival rate was 96.4%) and 90.4% respectively. There was no significant difference between the survival rate of short implants and the patient's gender, age, whether to use special operation and the type of jaw teeth(P<0.05). Smoking and periodontitis were risk factors for failure of short implants(P<0.05).The difference of short implant survival rate between short implants restoration with combined crowns and single crowns was statistically significant(P<0.05). The survival rate of short implant in mandible was higher than that in maxilla(P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Under the standards clinical program and operation, short implant can be used to shorten the implant restoration cycle and avoid complicated bone augmentation which can achieve good long-term clinical effect. Short implant should be used to strictly control the risk factors that affect the survival of short implant.
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    Dental Education
    Application of digital dynamic smile aesthetic simulation teaching method in orthodontic practicum
    SU Xiao-xia, ZHOU Li, LIAO Li, LI Yue-yan, LI Xiao-bin
    2023, 32 (2):  220-224.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.02.020
    Abstract ( 89 )   PDF (1796KB) ( 75 )  
    PURPOSE: To integrate digital dynamic smile aesthetic simulation (DSAS) cognitive education in orthodontic practicum and evaluate the teaching effects. METHODS: A total of 32 dental students during orthodontic practicum were randomly divided into two groups. One group received traditional teaching method to draft treatment plan, and another group was implemented with DSAS teaching method. Then two groups exchanged. Students were asked to grade both teaching methods and statistical analysis was performed on the scoring results with SPSS 24.0 software package. RESULTS: The scores of the DSAS teaching method was much higher than traditional method, and the difference was statistically significant(P=0.012). Students considered that DSAS teaching method was more “novel and fascinating”, and also “convenient for comprehending of orthodontic treatment”. Students hoped to popularize the DSAS teaching method in future orthodontic practicum. CONCLUSIONS: As a novel teaching method, DSAS is more intuitive and vivid to stimulate students' interest in learning, and it is helpful to improve the effect of orthodontic practical teaching.
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