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Table of Content

    25 February 2023, Volume 32 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Original Articles
    Comparison of dentinal microcracks caused by new generation of single reciprocating files after root canal preparation
    ZHANG Bin, JIA Ming-yu, FAN Rui, TIAN Jian-gang, GE Xue-jun, HUANG Rui-zhe
    2023, 32 (1):  1-5.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.01.001
    Abstract ( 135 )   PDF (773KB) ( 103 )  
    PURPOSE: To compare the incidence of dentinal microcracks after root canal preparation by new generation of nickel-titanium instrument WaveOne Gold, Reciproc Blue with previous WaveOne and Reciproc. METHODS: Ninety extracted single-rooted mandibular premolars were randomly divided into 6 groups(n=15). The root canals were instrumented by using Hand K files, WaveOne, Reciproc, WaveOne Gold and Reciproc Blue. Fifteen teeth were left unprepared and served as negative controls. The root canals were all prepared to 25#. The roots were then sectioned at 3 mm, 6 mm and 9 mm from the apical orifice using a hard tissue slicer. The slices were observed under stereoscopic microscope at ×25 magnification. SPSS 17.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: No dentinal microcrack was found in the hand K files group and negative control group. The reciprocating single files WaveOne, WaveOne Gold, Reciproc and Reciproc Blue all produced dentinal microcracks after root canal preparation. The WaveOne generated the most dentinal microcracks than the hand K files(P<0.05), and the microcracks were mainly concentrated in the middle part of the root. The number of dentinal microcracks caused by Reciproc and Reciproc Blue was the same, with no significant difference(P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The new generation of reciprocating files of WaveOne Gold and Reciproc Blue may not increase the incidence of dentinal microcracks after root canal preparation.
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    An improved paraffin embedding method for small core needle biopsy: technical introduction and evaluation
    CHEN Wan-ling, SHI Chao-ji, WANG Min, GU Ting, TIAN Zhen
    2023, 32 (1):  6-11.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.01.002
    Abstract ( 139 )   PDF (2236KB) ( 81 )  
    PURPOSE: Modified agar pre-embedded paraffin embedding method was proposed to evaluate the effects on tissue integrity, histological morphology, protein and DNA detection in small specimens of core needle biopsies. METHODS: The core needle biopsy specimens of 10 patients with oral mucosal squamous cell carcinoma were subjected to modified agar pre-embedded paraffin embedding using molded embedding molds and conventional paraffin embedding respectively, the dehydration time of the former was 3.5 h and that of the latter was 12 h. After tissue treatment, H-E staining, histological morphology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed, respectively. The results were compared and analyzed using GraphPad Prism 9 software package. RESULTS: The modified agar pre-embedding method was less difficult to perform than the agar pre-embedding method, and easier to be promoted. Compared with conventional paraffin embedding method, the tissue dehydration time was significantly reduced(P<0.001), and the results of microscopic histological morphology and subsequent IHC and FISH assays were reliable. CONCLUSIONS: The modified agar pre-embedded paraffin embedding method meets the requirements of clinical pathological diagnosis for tissue processing, and is worthy of clinical application for core needle biopsy specimens.
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    Effect of three mixing methods on air bubbles and solidification state of alginate impression materials
    ZHOU Yi-an, XIAO Song, XIE Xue-mei, WANG Yu-hua
    2023, 32 (1):  12-16.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.01.003
    Abstract ( 451 )   PDF (658KB) ( 79 )  
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of full-automatic mixing machine method, clockwise manual mixing and combined eight-shaped manual mixing on air bubble content, flowability, temperature, working time and setting time of alginate impression materials. METHODS: With the same condition, alginate impression materials were mixed by three different methods. The number of bubbles, area, flowability, temperature, working time and setting time were evaluated with SPSS 24.0 software package. RESULTS: The number of bubbles in the automatic mixing group was (2.30±2.50), and the area was (0.17±0.18) mm2, which was less than the number of clockwise manual mixing group (59.60±14.19), and the total area (7.41±2.24) mm2 (P<0.01). The flowability of the clockwise manual mixing group [(39.52±0.85) mm] was less than that of the full-automatic mixing group [(50.78±0.90) mm] and the combined eight-character manual mixing group [(50.36±1.75) mm](P<0.01).The setting time of the material mixed by three methods was eligible for clinical use. CONCLUSIONS: The mixing method of alginate impression material has an effect on material's bubble content, flowability and temperature changes. The impression materials mixed by full-automatic mixing method are better in terms of bubble content, flowability and other properties. If manual mixing is used, combined eight-shaped manual mixing method can help reduce impression bubbles and deformation, and improve flowability.
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    Role and mechanism of miR-497-5p in the differentiation and mineralization of pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1
    HU Xi, LUO Jun
    2023, 32 (1):  17-22.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.01.004
    Abstract ( 87 )   PDF (970KB) ( 80 )  
    PURPOSE: To study the role of microRNA (miR)-497-5p in the differentiation and mineralization of pre-osteoblasts MC3T3-E1, and to explore the related mechanisms. METHODS: The third generation MC3T3-E1 cells were transfected into the miR-497-5p overexpression plasmid miR-497-5p mimics, the low expression plasmid miR-497-5p inhibitor, and the negative control plasmid miR-497-5p NC. They were set up as the miR-497-5p mimics group, miR-497-5p inhibitor group, and miR-497-5p NC group. The cells untreated was set up as the blank group. Fourteen days after osteogenic induction, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was detected. The expression of osteocalcin (OCN) and type I collagen (COL-I) proteins related to osteogenic differentiation were detected by Western blotting. Mineralization was observed by alizarin red staining method. The expression of Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 2 (Smurf2) protein was detected by Western blotting. The targeting relationship between miR-497-5p and Smurf2 was verified by dual luciferase experiment. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 25.0 software package. RESULTS: Compared with the blank group and miR-497-5p NC group, ALP activity of the miR-497-5p mimics group was enhanced, the expression of OCN, COL-I protein and the ratio of the area of mineralized nodules was increased, and the expression of Smurf2 protein was decreased(P<0.05). ALP activity of the miR-497-5p inhibitor group was weakened, the expression of OCN, COL-I protein and the ratio of the area of mineralized nodules was decreased, and the expression of Smurf2 protein was increased(P<0.05). Compared with Smurf2 3'-UTR-WT+miR-497-5p NC group, Smurf2 3'-UTR-MT+miR-497-5p mimics group, Smurf2 3'-UTR-MT+miR-497-5p NC group, the activity of dual luciferase in the WT+miR-497-5p mimics group was decreased (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of miR-497-5p can promote the differentiation and mineralization of pre-osteoblasts MC3T3-E1, and its mechanism may be related to the negatively targeted regulation of Smurf2 protein expression.
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    Effect of lncRNA AWPPH on human periodontal ligament cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation by regulating Notch signaling pathway
    Dilidaer·Taxifulati, NIU Ya-qi, Reyisha·Abudukeyimu, WANG Lin
    2023, 32 (1):  23-27.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.01.005
    Abstract ( 77 )   PDF (582KB) ( 64 )  
    PURPOSE: To explore the effect and molecular mechanism of long non-coding RNA(lncRNA) AWPPH on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells by regulating the Notch signaling pathway. METHODS: Human periodontal ligament cells were cultured in vitro, and osteogenic differentiation was induced. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) experiment were used to detect the AWPPH expression level of cells at 0, 3, 7, and 14 days. Human periodontal ligament cells were divided into blank control group (NC), empty vector group (vector), AWPPH overexpression group (AWPPH), and overexpression AWPPH+ pathway inhibitor group (AWPPH+DAPT). qRT-PCR experiment was used to detect the expression level of AWPPH; thiazole blue (MTT), cloning experiment was used to detect cell proliferation. Western blot was performed to detect the protein expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), Notch1 and Hes1. SPSS 21.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The AWPPH expression level in periodontal ligament cells decreased after 0, 3, 7, and 14 days of osteogenic differentiation. Overexpression of AWPPH increased the A value of periodontal ligament cells, the number of cloned cells, and up-regulated the protein expression of ALP, OPN, OCN, Notch1, and Hes1. After adding the pathway inhibitor DAPT, the A value and the number of cloned cells decreased, and the protein expression of Notch1, Hes1, ALP, OPN, and OCN decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of AWPPH may inhibit the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells by reducing the expression of related proteins in the Notch signaling pathway.
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    Evaluation on application of 3D printing digital positioning guide in root canal retreatment
    TIAN Shuo, HASDA Lai, TIAN Tuo, PAN Wen-hui
    2023, 32 (1):  28-32.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.01.006
    Abstract ( 112 )   PDF (860KB) ( 77 )  
    PURPOSE: To explore the application of 3D printing digital positioning guide in root canal retreatment. METHODS: Eighty-two isolated teeth collected in Chifeng College Affiliated Hospital from January 2018 to December 2021 were selected, and divided into experimental group and control group by random number table method, with 41 teeth in each group. Both groups were given root canal retreatment. The control group underwent traditional pulpotomy, while the experimental group underwent precise pulpotomy under 3D printing digital positioning guide. The damage of the coronal prosthesis caused by pulpotomy was compared between the two groups, the time of pulpotomy was recorded, removal of root canal fillings in the two groups was counted, fracture resistance of the tooth tissue in the two groups was compared, and the incidence of complications in the two groups was recorded. SPSS 18.0 software package was used for statistical analysis of the data. RESULTS: The ratio of pulp opening area to total dental and maxillofacial area in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). The pulp opening time in the experimental group was lower than that in the control group(P<0.05), and the root canal preparation time in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group(P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the total time between pulp opening and root canal preparation between the two groups(P>0.05). The removal rate of root canal filling in the experimental group was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). The failure load value of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of total complications between the two groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Application of 3D-printed digital positioning guides in root canal retreatment can achieve precise and minimally invasive pulp opening, reduce damage to coronal restorations, preserve more dental tissue, and improve the removal efficiency of root canal fillings and the fracture resistance of dental tissue, as well as performance, safety and reliability.
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    Analysis of potential pathogenic factors of trigeminal neuralgia in rats
    LIU Yue-min, CHAI Ying, WEI Wen-bin, LIU Zhi-yang, HAN Zi-xiang, CHEN Min-jie
    2023, 32 (1):  33-39.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.01.007
    Abstract ( 83 )   PDF (1559KB) ( 82 )  
    PURPOSES: Transcriptomics-based analysis of key transcriptional molecules in the pathogenesis of trigeminal neuropathic pain was conducted to screen key molecules in the pathogenesis of trigeminal neuralgia. METHODS: Rat trigeminal nerve pathological pain model, namely chronic constriction injury of distal infraorbital nerve (IoN-CCI), was constructed and animal behaviors postsurgery were observed and analyzed. Trigeminal ganglia were collected for RNA-seq transcriptomics analysis. StringTie was used to annotate and quantify genome expression. DESeq2 was applied to compare between groups with P value less than 0.05 and fold change greater than 2 times and less than 0.5 times to screen differential genes, and display them with volcano graphs and cluster graphs. ClusterProfiler software was used to perform GO function enrichment analysis of differential genes. RESULTS: On the fifth postoperative day (POD5), the rat's face-grooming behavior increased to a peak; on the seventh postoperative day (POD7), the von-frey value dropped to the lowest value, indicating that the mechanical pain threshold of rats was significantly decreased. RNA-seq analysis of IoN-CCI rat ganglia found that the significantly up-regulated signaling pathways included B cell receptor signaling pathway, cell adhesion, complement and coagulation cascade pathways; significantly down-regulated pathways were related to systemic lupus erythematosus. Multiple genes among Cacna1s, Cox8b, My1, Ckm, Mylpf, Myoz1, Tnnc2 were involved in mediating the occurrence of trigeminal neuralgia. CONCLUSIONS: B cell receptor signaling pathway, cell adhesion, complement and coagulation cascade pathways, neuroimmune pathways are closely related to the occurrence of trigeminal neuralgia. The interaction of multiple genes among Cacna1s, Cox8b, My11, Ckm, Mylpf, Myoz1, Tnnc2 leads to the occurrence of trigeminal neuralgia.
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    Effect of up-regulation of Decorin on expression of EGFR, C-Myc and p21 in nude mice with oral squamous cell carcinoma
    GUO Meng-yao, LI Kai-yu, NIE Min-hai, LIU Xu-qian
    2023, 32 (1):  40-46.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.01.008
    Abstract ( 89 )   PDF (4057KB) ( 63 )  
    PURPOSE: To explore the effect of overexpression of DCN(decorin) gene on the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cellular-myelocytomatosis viral oncogene (C-Myc) and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (p21)in tumor-bearing nude mice with oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC). METHODS: The expression of DCN gene in human oral squamous cell carcinoma(HSC-3) was up-regulated by liposome transfection. Nude mice were used as the carrier of OSCC. H-E staining was used to determine the pathological grade of tumor-bearing tissues in each group. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of EGFR, C-Myc and p21 protein in tumor-bearing tissues of each group after DCN overexpression. RT-qPCR and Western blot were used to quantitatively detect the expression of EGFR, C-Myc and p21 in tumor-bearing tissues of each group after DCN overexpression, and to determine the effects of DCN overexpression on the expression of EGFR, C-Myc and p21 in tumor-bearing tissues of OSCC nude mice. SPSS 20.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: H-E staining showed that the animal model of OSCC was successfully constructed. The tumor-bearing tissues of nude mice in the plasmid group were significantly lighter than those in the empty vector group and non-transfected group(P<0.05). IHC results showed that DCN, EGFR, C-Myc and p21 proteins were expressed in the tumor-bearing tissues of nude mice in each group, the expression of DCN,EGFR and C-Myc proteins in the plasmid group was significantly different from the other groups(P<0.05).There was no significant differece in p21 protein expression in each group(P>0.05). RT-qPCR and Western blot results showed that DCN, EGFR, C-Myc and p21 were expressed in diffrent degrees in tumor-bearing tissues of nude mice(P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: DCN can inhibit the growth of tumor in OSCC nude mice. In tumor-bearing tissues of nude mice with OSCC, overexpression of DCN can down-regulate the expression of EGFR and C-Myc, and up-regulate the expression of p21.DCN may play an inhibitory role in the occurrence and development of OSCC.
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    Relationship between sICAM-1, IL-1β and HIF-1α levels in gingival sulcus fluid and peri-implantitis in patients with implant restoration
    XIE Xue-mei, ZHANG Jia-yuan, ZHANG Ye, YU Xiao-jia, LIU Li-ming, WANG Jian, YU De-dong
    2023, 32 (1):  47-51.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.01.009
    Abstract ( 159 )   PDF (646KB) ( 53 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between the levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in gingival sulcus fluid and peri-implantitis (PI) in patients with implant restoration. METHODS: A total of 198 patients with implant restoration admitted to Fengcheng Hospital from January 2019 to December 2021 were selected, the patients were divided into PI and non-PI group according to whether the implant restoration was complicated by PI 3 months after restoration. The levels of sICAM-1, IL-1β and HIF-1α in the gingival sulcus fluid prior to implant restoration were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multi-factor logistic regression was used to analyze the factors influencing concurrent PI in patients with implant restoration. ROC curves were used to analyze the predictive value of sICAM-1, IL-1β and HIF-1α levels in gingival sulcus fluid on concurrent PI in patients with implant restoration. SPSS 28.0 software package was used for statistical processing of the data. RESULTS: The incidence of PI in 198 patients with implant restoration was 17.68% (35/198) 3 months after implant restoration. The levels of sICAM-1, IL-1β and HIF-1α in the gingival sulcus fluid were significantly higher in the PI group than in the non-PI group (P<0.05). Multi-factor logistic regression analysis showed that elevated sICAM-1(OR=1.135, 95%CI: 1.066 to 1.208), IL-1β (OR=1.106, 95%CI: 1.054 to 1.161) and HIF-1α (OR=1.008, 95%CI: 1.004 to 1.012) were independent risk factors for complications of PI in prosthetic patients(P<0.05). ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the curve for sICAM-1, IL-1β and HIF-1α levels in gingival sulcus fluid alone and in combination for the diagnosis of concurrent PI in patients with implantation was 0.787, 0.785, 0.794 and 0.930, respectively, with sensitivity of 80.00%, 74.29%, 62.86% and 88.57% and specificity of 66.87%, 74.85%, 78.53% and 85.28%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated levels of sICAM-1, IL-1β and HIF-1α in gingival sulcus fluid are independent risk factors for PI complications in patients with implant restoration and can be used as an auxiliary predictor of PI complications in patients with implant restoration.
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    Evaluation of the effect of simultaneous neuralized iliac bone flap on the preservation of lower lip and chin sensation during mandibular reconstruction
    SHI Jing-cun, WU Zi-qian, ZHANG Yu-han, XIAO Meng, ZHANG Shi-jian, ZHANG Zhen, ZHANG Bing-qing, WANG Lei
    2023, 32 (1):  52-57.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.01.010
    Abstract ( 82 )   PDF (1447KB) ( 45 )  
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of reconstructing inferior alveolar nerve and preserving the sensation of lower lip and chin in repairing mandibular defect by simultaneous neuralized iliac bone flap. METHODS: Patients with continuous mandibular defects requiring reconstruction were randomly assigned to the innervated(IN) group and the control(CO) group by random number table. In the IN group, the deep circumflex iliac artery and recipient vessels were anastomosed microscopically during mandible reconstruction, and the ilioinguinal nerve(IN), mental nerve(MN) and inferior alveolar nerve(IAN) were anastomosed at the same time. In the CO group, only vascular anastomosis was performed without nerve reconstruction. During the operation, the nerve electrical activity after nerve anastomosis was detected by nerve monitor, and the sensory recovery of lower lip was recorded by two-point discrimination(TPD), current perception threshold (CPT) and Touch test sensory evaluator(TTSE) test. SPSS 26.0 software package was used for data analysis. RESULTS: According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 20 patients were included, with 10 patients in each group. All the flaps survived in both groups, and no serious complications such as flap crisis occurred, and no obvious complications occurred in the donor site. The results of TPD test, CPT test and TTSE test all indicated that the degree of postoperative hypoesthesia in the IN group was less(P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Simultaneous nerve anastomosis vascularized iliac bone flap can effectively preserve the feeling of lower lip and improve the postoperative quality of life of patients. It is a safe and effective technique.
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    Assessment of the reproducibility of occlusal morphology for digital full crown designed by mandibular trajectory data
    XU Xin-rui, YU Run-ping, YUAN Yun, ZHANG Hong-ming, HUANG Hui
    2023, 32 (1):  58-62.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.01.011
    Abstract ( 107 )   PDF (925KB) ( 51 )  
    PURPOSE: To metrically assess the reproducibility of mandibular trajectory data and mean frame parameter in guiding the design of occlusal morphology of prosthesis. METHODS: Fifteen subjects with complete dentition were selected, including 6 females and 9 males, with an average age of 22-30 years old. The mandibular trajectory data and mean frame parameter were used to guide the design of occlusal morphology of the prosthesis in the CAD system, then the occlusal morphology was compared to the original natural teeth. The data were statistically analyzed by SPSS 25.0 software package. RESULTS: The general deviation of occlusal morphology between the prosthesis guided by mandibular trajectory data and mean frame parameter with the natural teeth was as follows: mean positive distance was (269.9±63.1) μm, (318.7±51.3) μm; mean negative distance was (-175.8±78.2) μm, (-253.7±65.6) μm; root mean square (RMS) was (267.1±84.9) μm and (304.1±82.2) μm. The vertical distance on mesial buccal cusp was (197.6±86.2) μm and (288.0±79.6) μm,distal buccal cusp was (176.3±85.3) μm and (297.7±63.2) μm, mesial lingual cusp was (171.6±62.4) μm and (246.4±62.8) μm, distal lingual cusp was (166.2±64.6) μm and (232.5±70.7) μm, central fossa was (104.9±42.2) μm and (219.1±69.1) μm. RMS, mean(-) and vertical differences of central fossa and distal buccal cusp were significantly different(P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The occlusal morphology of the prosthesis designed under the guidance of mandibular trajectory data and mean frame parameter both have significant differences with natural occlusion, but the deviation guided by mandibular trajectory data is lower.
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    Impact of maternal caries risk on children’s caries susceptibility
    ZHOU Qiong, LIU Min, WANG Xiao, CHEN Wei
    2023, 32 (1):  63-68.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.01.012
    Abstract ( 59 )   PDF (734KB) ( 51 )  
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of caries risk of pregnant mothers on caries susceptibility of infants in order to provide a basis for effective control and prevention of the occurrence and development of early childhood caries. METHODS: A total of 140 pregnant women and infants from 4 to 9 months of gestation in Xicheng and Miyun Maternal and Child Health Hospital were selected as the study subjects. According to WHO 2013 caries diagnosis standard, oral examination, questionnaire survey and stimulating saliva samples of pregnant mothers were collected. Caries activity was determined using the Dentocult SM, Dentocule LB and Dentobuff Strip standard kit. At 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years, caries was recorded and resting saliva samples were collected. Nested PCR was used to detect the colonization of S.mutans in infants at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years of age. Statistical analysis was concluded with SPSS 21.0 software package. RESULTS: After 2 years of observation, the rate of lost follow-up was 11.43%, 124 pairs of mother-child were followed up. The study was divided into moderate and low caries risk (LCR) group and high caries risk (HCR) group based on the number of open caries (untreated cavities) in mothers, detection of Streptococcus mutans by Dentocult SM, Lactobacillus by Dentocule LB, saliva buffering capacity by Dentbuff Strip, and questionnaire results. The results showed that the prevalence of white spot(18.33%) and dmft (0.3±0.087) in HCR group were significantly higher than those in LCR group (3.13%, 0.06±0.044) (P<0.05) at one-year old children. The prevalence of white spot (21.67%) and dmft (0.33±0.088) in HCR group were significantly higher than those in LCR group (6.25%, 0.09±0.048) (P<0.05) at two-year old children. The prevalence of caries (20.00%) and dmft (0.33±0.10) in HCR group were significantly higher than those in LCR group (6.25%, 0.11±0.055)(P<0.05) at two-year old children. The detection rate of S.mutans in HCR group was significantly higher than that in LCR group at 6 months, 1-year old and 2-year old children(P<0.05). The prevalence of dental caries (29.62%) and dmft (0.67±0.22) in children with S.mutans detected at 6 months were significantly higher than those in children without S.mutans detected (13.40%) and dmft (0.30±0.082) (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: After 2 years of observation, mothers with high caries risk also had higher caries susceptibility in their children. At the same time, the high risk of dental caries in mothers affected the colonization of S.mutans in children's oral cavity to a certain extent; and the earlier colonization of S.mutans, the higher risk of dental caries at 2-year old children. Therefore, intervention of oral health behaviors of mothers with high caries risk in early pregnancy can effectively prevent or reduce the occurrence and development of ECC to some extent by blocking or delaying the vertical transmission of S.mutans.
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    A retrospective cohort study of risk factors for prevalence of implant biological complications
    XU Xiao-qian, LI Lei
    2023, 32 (1):  69-74.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.01.013
    Abstract ( 53 )   PDF (830KB) ( 56 )  
    PURPOSE: To analyze the risk factors of biological complications after implant-fixed denture restoration. METHODS: Seven hundred and twenty-five implants were placed between March 2012 and March 2016. Follow-up period was 5 to 9 years. The implant mucosal index (IMI) and implant marginal bone loss (MBL) were measured at 3 months-1 year, 2-3 years, 4-5 years, 6-7 years and 8-9 years after restoration. The prevalence and risk factors of peri-implantitis and mucositis were analyzed. SPSS 28.0 software package was used to analyze the date. RESULTS: The implant survival rate of 5 years was 98.7%. The prevalence of mucositis and peri-implantitis were 37.5% and 8.3% at 8 to 9 years. Smoking, periodontitis, narrow diameter, rough neck , anterior location, bone augmentation caused higher prevalence of peri-implantitis or mucositis (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking, periodontitis, implant diameter, implant design, implant location and bone augmentation are the risk factors of implant biological complications.
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    Comparative study on extraction of impacted mandibular wisdom teeth by Er:YAG laser and turbine handpiece
    ZHANG Ying-hao, ZHAO Ning, ZHAO Ai-jie, ZHU Chao
    2023, 32 (1):  75-79.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.01.014
    Abstract ( 74 )   PDF (631KB) ( 67 )  
    PURPOSE: To compare the clinical effect of Er:YAG laser and turbine handpiece in the removal of lower horizontally impacted wisdom teeth, and to evaluate the operation time, postoperative pain, facial swelling, degree of mouth opening limitation and complications. METHODS: From March 2020 to May 2022, forty patients with bilateral lower mandibular horizontally impacted wisdom teeth in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of Linyi People's Hospital were selected,and all bilateral wisdom teeth were partially bone buried. The bilateral wisdom teeth of each patient were removed by Er:YAG laser on one side and turbine handpiece on the other side, respectively. The patients were divided into experimental(laser) group and control(turbine handpiece) group according to the ways of bone removal on each side. The clinical effect of the two groups was compared after a week of follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0 software package. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the two groups in operation time(P>0.05). The incidence of postoperative pain, facial swelling, mouth opening limitation and complications in the experimental group were significantly lower than those in the control group(P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The operation time of extraction with Er:YAG laser is similar to that with turbine handpiece, but laser can reduce postoperative reaction and the incidence of complications, which is easy to be accepted by patients and worthy of wide application.
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    Expression level and clinical significance of CD44 and CD33 in 77 patients with benign lymphoadenosis of oral mucosa
    WANG Xun-xia, JIANG Guo-ping, ZHANG Yong-zhe, LI Ai-qun, WANG Rui-chun
    2023, 32 (1):  80-84.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.01.015
    Abstract ( 212 )   PDF (574KB) ( 43 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate the expression and clinical significance of CD44 and CD33 in benign lymphoadenosis of oral mucosa(BLOM). METHODS: From January 2017 to March 2020, seventy-seven BLOM wax blocks from the Department of Pathology of Qingdao Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital were selected as the experimental group, and 63 cases of normal oral mucosal tissue wax blocks during the same period were selected as the control group. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect the positive expression of CD44 and CD33 in the two groups.Spearman correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between the positive expression of CD33 and the positive expression of CD44 in the diseased tissues of BLOM patients.The general information about patients were collected.The relationship between the expression of CD33 and CD44 in the diseased tissues of BLOM patients and the clinicopathological characteristics of BLOM patients were analyzed. SPSS 21.0 software package was used for statistical analysis of the data. RESULTS: The positive expression rates of CD33 in the control group and the experimental group were 95.24% and 63.64%, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05). The positive expression rates of CD44 in the control group and the experimental group were 93.65% and 67.53%, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05). The results of Spearman correlation analysis showed that the positive expression of CD33 in the diseased tissues of BLOM patients was positively correlated with the positive expression of CD44 (r=0.834, P=0.002). The expression of CD33 and CD44 in the diseased tissues of patients with BLOM were related to clinical type, degree of inflammation, presence or absence of lymphoid follicles, and lymphocyte infiltration(P<0.05), but not related to age, gender, course of disease, location, and epithelial surface keratinization(P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The positive expression rate of CD33 and CD44 in the BLOM tissues decreased, which was closely related to the clinical type, degree of inflammation, presence or absence of lymphoid follicles, and lymphocyte infiltration.
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    LncRNA RUNX1-IT1 regulating malignant pleomorphic adenoma via mir-195/CyclinD1
    WEI Jun-shui, SUN Xin, XU Jin-biao, CHEN Yi-da
    2023, 32 (1):  85-90.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.01.016
    Abstract ( 58 )   PDF (659KB) ( 54 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate the regulation of long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) RUNX1-IT1 on microrna (mir-195)/CyclinD1 (CyclinD1) in malignant pleomorphic adenoma (MPA). METHODS: The MPA tissues and para-carcinoma tissues were collected and the expression levels of LncRNA RUNX1-IT1, miR-195 and CyclinD1 mRNA were detected, the correlation and clinical pathology of MPA was analyzed and compared. MPA cell line SM-AP1 was cultured and transfected with negative control(NC) siRNA, LncRNA RUNX1-IT1siRNA, miR-NC and miR-195 inhibitor. Cell proliferation level A490 and expression levels of miR-195 and CyclinD1 were detected. LncRNA RUNX1-IT1 targeting miR-195 and miR-195 targeting CyclinD1 were analyzed by dual luciferase reporter gene assay. SPSS 21.0 software package was used for data analysis. RESULTS: The expression level of LncRNA RUNX1-IT1 and CyclinD1 in MPA were higher than those in para tumor tissues, and the expression level of miR-195 was lower than that in para tumor tissues(P<0.05). LncRNA RUNX1-IT1was negatively correlated with miR-195, positively correlated with CyclinD1, and miR-195 was negatively correlated with CyclinD1. The expression of LncRNA RUNX1-IT1 and CyclinD1 in MPA tissue with tumor diameter≥3 cm, recurrence and distant metastasis increased(P<0.05), while the expression of miR-195 decreased(P<0.05). After knockdown of LncRNA RUNX1-IT1, A490 level and CyclinD1 expression level decreased, while miR-195 expression level increased(P<0.05). miR-195 decreased the fluorescence activity of LncRNA RUNX1-IT1 and CyclinD1 reporter genes(P<0.05). After miR-195 was inhibited, the effect of LncRNA RUNX1-IT1 knockdown on decreasing A490 level and CyclinD1 expression level weakened(P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: LncRNA RUNx1-IT1 may participate in the development of MPA by regulating the expression of miR-195/CyclinD1.
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    Three-dimensional assessment and study on temporomandibular joint and the maxillary characteristics of skeletal Class Ⅲ mandibular deviation patients
    TANG Ru-ping, LIU Shuai, ZHAO Zhen-jin, WANG Jun-yan
    2023, 32 (1):  91-96.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.01.017
    Abstract ( 83 )   PDF (886KB) ( 45 )  
    PURPOSE: To study the temporomandibular joint morphology and position and the maxillary characteristics of skeletal Class Ⅲ mandibular deviation patients with vertical disproportion in bilateral gonions. METHODS: Overall 79 adult patients with skeletal Class Ⅲ malocclusions were selected. Craniofacial spiral CT scanning was performed, and three-dimensional reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint(TMJ) was carried out by using ProPlan CMF3.0 three-dimensional analysis software. The patients were divided into two groups according to the deviation degree of the mentum: symmetric group (the S group: n=24) and deviation group (n=55). The deviation group was divided into two subgroups according to whether there was vertical disproportion in bilateral gonions, i.e., ASV group: there were vertical differences in bilateral gonions(n=27), and ASNV group: there was no vertical difference in bilateral gonions (n=28). Seven condylar morphological and position indicators and nine maxilla-related indicators were measured. SPSS 22.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: In deviation group, the condylar length on the deviated side was shorter than the opposite side, the difference value between the two sides was greater than the symmetric group, and there were asymmetry and different degrees of disproportion in the three-dimensional direction in the maxilla. In ASV group, the angle of the condylar axis to the horizontal plane on the deviated side was smaller and the anteroposterior diameter of the condyle was smaller. In ASV group, the mediolateral dimension of condyle on the deviated side were smaller. From variance analysis and multiple comparisons, the difference of condylar length on both sides in ASV group and ASNV group was greater than that in the symmetric group. There were asymmetries in the maxillae in ASV group and ASNV group, and the maxillary width on the deviated side was greater than that on non-deviated side. Transverse maxillary disproportion was more likely to occur in the ASNV group. The vertical maxillary disproportion on both sides in ASV group was larger than that in ASNV group and S group, and the deviated side was smaller than the opposite side. CONCLUSIONS: The TMJ morphology and position of skeletal Class Ⅲ mandibular deviation patients with vertical disproportion in bilateral gonions and the maxillary asymmetry in the three-dimensional direction require attention in the diagnosis and conceptual design of surgical-orthodontic treatment.
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    Application of nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation comfort technique during tooth extraction of elderly hypertensive patients under electrocardiographic monitoring
    SHAO Yun, CUI Qi-chun, HE Huan, CHENG Qing-tao, Ren Jia-wei, LI Jing, ZHU Wei-yan, JIANG Mu-ya, LIU Jia-liang
    2023, 32 (1):  97-100.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.01.018
    Abstract ( 70 )   PDF (540KB) ( 52 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate the application value of nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation comfort technique during tooth extraction in elderly patients with hypertension under electrocardiographic(ECG) monitoring. METHODS: According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, sixty elderly patients (over 65 years old) with hypertension for tooth extraction were randomly divided into 2 groups: the experimental group(nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation combined with ECG monitoring group, n=30) and the control group (routine ECG monitoring group, n=30). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) at T0 (baseline values before surgery), T1 (on local anesthesia), T2 (during operation) and T3(5 minutes after operation) were recorded. SPSS 25.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in MAP and HR at each time point in the experimental group(P>0.05). There was no significant difference in MAP and HR at T0 and T3 time points in the control group(P>0.05).At other time points, MAP and HR were significantly different (P<0.05). There was no significant differences in MAP and HR between the two groups at T0 and T3(P>0.05). MAP and HR at T1 and T2 in the experimental group were significantly less than those in the control group(P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation comfort technology can stabilize patients' emotions and maintain stable blood pressure and heart rate in elderly patients with hypertension during tooth extraction, thus improving the safety of tooth extraction.
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    Clinical effect of simultaneous implantation and maxillary sinus floor elevation with or without bone graft
    HU Ning, LI Feng-dan, JIANG Yin-hua
    2023, 32 (1):  101-104.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.01.019
    Abstract ( 73 )   PDF (448KB) ( 91 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate the difference of osteogenic effect and stability of maxillary sinus implants 6 months after maxillary sinus elevation with or without bone grafting. METHODS: A total of 150 patients with maxillary sinus floor lift and simultaneous implantation in Lishui People's Hospital from December 2019 to December 2021 were divided into group A (internal maxillary sinus lift + bone grafting) and group B (internal lift without bone grafting). Preoperative and postoperative CBCT data and implant stability of all patients were measured and analyzed to compare whether there were differences in clinical efficacy between the two groups. SPSS 25.0 software package was used for data analysis. RESULTS: A total of 199 implants were implanted, the implant retention rate was 97.6% in group A and 95.7% in group B one year after surgery, with no significant difference between the two groups(P>0.05). There was no significant difference in residual bone height(RBH) and gray scale value (HU) between the two groups before and 6 months after operation (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in ISQ value between the two groups during operation and 6 months after operation(P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In cases with the remaining alveolar bone height of 3~8 mm and the planned lifting height of 3~4 mm, maxillary sinus floor lifting procedure achieved good clinical results in both groups with or without bone grafting, which indicated that bone grafting had little effect on retention rate and stability of the implants.
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    Clinical application of virtual surgery combined with guide plate in reduction and fixation of condylar neck fracture in 7 patients
    YING Kai, WANG Liang, ZHU Yong-wu, LI Qian-qian, MAO Bin
    2023, 32 (1):  105-108.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.01.020
    Abstract ( 80 )   PDF (1132KB) ( 56 )  
    PURPOSE: To explore the value of virtual surgery and 3D printing model combined with guide plate in treatment of mandibular condylar neck fracture. METHODS: Seven patients with mandibular condylar neck fracture were scanned by CT for original data. The data were exported in DICOM format. A three-dimensional model was reconstructed using software, the fracture was reduced by virtual surgery, and the 3D model was printed by a 3D printer. A prebent titanium plate was used to fabricate the guide plate, which was used for reduction and fixation of the fracture block during surgery. RESULTS: All the postoperative incisions revealed no signs of infection, the wounds were hidden and beautiful. The implanted titanium plates were highly compatible with the reduced fracture segments. The patients were followed up for 6 months after surgery, the condylar fracture healed well and there was no obvious displacement. The patient developed no mandibular deviation with a stable occlusion, and no occlusal pain was reported. No obvious temporomandibular joint disorder was present. CONCLUSIONS: Virtual surgery and 3D printing model combined with guide plate can ensure an accurate reduction of condylar neck fracture and simplify the operation process, which can be used as an accurate, efficient and predictable auxiliary method.
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    Application of psychological scales recommended by DC/TMD in patients with temporomandibular joint disorders
    TANG Jun, YU Chun-hua, CHENG Hui-juan, QIAN Hai-xin, CAI Cui-ping, NIE Rong-bing
    2023, 32 (1):  109-112.  doi: 10.19439/j.sjos.2023.01.021
    Abstract ( 95 )   PDF (475KB) ( 56 )  
    PURPOSE: To observe psychological conditions such as anxiety, depression and somatic symptoms of temporomandibular disorders(TMD) patients using psychological scales recommended by DC/TMD and evaluate their clinical significance as the psychological axis for TMD diagnosis. METHODS: The experimental group included 100 TMD patients, and the control group comprised 100 normal prosthodontics outpatients without TMD symptoms. General information were collected including age, gender, education level, and personal income. The anxiety disorder scale (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, GAD-7), depression symptom scale (Patient Health Questionnaire-9, PHQ-9) and Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15) were used to evaluate patients’ psychological conditions. SPSS 20.0 software package was used for data analysis. RESULTS: Patients less than 30 years old and between 30-50 years had similar TMD occurrence rates, both significantly higher than those older than 50 years old(P<0.05). The proportion of highly educated patients in TMD group was significantly higher than that in the control group(P<0.05), while the income level was not a risk factor for TMD (P=0.642). The incidence and average scores of anxiety, not the depression or somatic symptoms, in experimental group were significantly higher than the control group(P<0.05). The level of anxiety and depression in painful TMD patients was significantly higher than patients with joint disease(P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Gender(female), age (<50 years old) and high education level (undergraduate and above) are risk factors of TMD, but the income level is irrelevant. The incidence and scores of anxiety in TMD patients are higher than normal prosthodontics outpatients, while there is no significant difference in the incidence of depression and somatic symptoms between two groups.
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