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    20 August 2015, Volume 24 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Basic study
    Effect of beryllium on the morphology and chemical elements of cell membrane of Porphyromonas gingivalis
    LI Wei-hong, HUANG Rui, LIN Hua, LI Qing-yan, ZHENG Xin-ying, LV Qiao, GAO Ning
    2015, 24 (4):  385-389. 
    Abstract ( 159 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (1153KB) ( 255 )  
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of beryllium (Be2+) on the morphology and chemical elements on cell membrane of Porphyromonas gingivalisP. gingivalis), thus to explore the microbiologic mechanisms of periodontal diseases. METHODS: P. gingivalis was put into the culture with different Be2+ concentrations and anaerobically cultured for 24 hours. The morphologic change of P. gingivalis was observed under microscope and scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and chemical elements of cell membrane were observed by X-ray energy dispersion spectrum (EDS). The data was statistically analyzed with SPSS13.0 software package. RESULTS: The morphology of P.gingivalis altered obviously at the concentration greater than 2.5 mg/L, which was manifested by the sharpness of border and depression on the surface. With the increased concentration of beryllium, the Na and Ca peak descended on the surface of P. gingivalis. CONCLUSIONS: Beryllium can interfere with the morphology of P. gingivalis, and lead to the changes of chemical elements on cell membrane of P. gingivalis, which may result in a disturbance in the microecologic balance of subgingival microbes and eventually contribute to periodontal diseases.
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    The effect of rhAm and EMPs on promoting differentiation of hBMSCs into osteoblasts
    LIN Zhi-kai, SHU Rong, SONG Zhong-chen, CHENG Lan, DONG Jia-chen, ZHANG Xiu-li
    2015, 24 (4):  390-394. 
    Abstract ( 198 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1077KB) ( 232 )  
    PURPOSE: To compare the effect of recombinant full-length human amelogenin (rhAm) and enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) on differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) into osteoblasts. Meanwhile, to investigate the possible mechanism of rhAm promoting osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. METHODS: ThehBMSCs were cultured in vitro. The cells were treated with 10 μg/mL rhAm and 200 μg/mL EMPs. The gene and protein expression of Runx2, ALP, Col-I were observed by using RT-PCR and Western blot at different time points. The influence of rhAm and EMPs on mineralization and osteogenesis of hBMSCs were observed by using alkaline phosphatase and alizarin red staining methods. The data was analyzed with SPSS 13.0 software package. RESULTS: Both rhAm and EMPs significantly promoted gene and protein expression of Runx2, ALP and Col-I in hBMSCs. Meanwhile, rhAm and EMPs also facilitated osteogenesis and mineralization of hBMSCs. The effects of two proteins on hBMSCs had no significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: Both 10 μg/mL rhAm and 200 μg/mL EMPs can significantly promote differentiation of hBMSCs into osteoblasts. The rhAm may be used in inducing periodontal tissue regeneration in the future.
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    Evaluation of the effect for ffh gene silencing on the aciduricity of fluoride resistant Streptococcus mutans
    LI Zhen-ling, ZHANG Zhi-min, LI Peng-lian, ZHANG Tong-fei, LI Tian-bo, LIU Fu-ping
    2015, 24 (4):  395-399. 
    Abstract ( 258 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1378KB) ( 342 )  
    PURPOSE: To analyze the effect of ffh gene silencing on the aciduricity of fluoride resistant Streptococcus mutans in vitro. METHODS: By using electroporation, UA159-FR was transformed and combined with targeted site of ffh gene sequence, and the best piece of siRNA for fluoride resistant Streptococcus mutans was screened. In different values of pH of BHI, they were cultured for 24 hours with UA159-FR respectively, and then centrifugated to determine the pH and OD600. SPSS17.0 software package was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The aciduricity of UA159-FR had significant differences compared with ffh gene silencing for UA159-FR in ΔpH (P<0.05), and the former was higher than the latter. At pH=3.5~5.0, P<0.01; at pH=5.5~7.5, P<0.05. Significant differences were noted in OD600 and their growth tendency were similar. CONCLUSIONS: The aciduricity of fluoride resistant Streptococcus mutans has significant effect when the ffh gene is silenced.
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    Suppression of VEGF protein expression by arctigenin in oral squamous cell carcinoma
    PU Guang-rui, LIU Fa-yu, WANG Bo
    2015, 24 (4):  400-403. 
    Abstract ( 226 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (963KB) ( 203 )  
    PURPOSE: To observe arctigenin’s inhibitory effect on oral squamous cell carcinoma, and explore the possible mechanism. METHODS: The expression of VEGF in 32 cases of oral squamous cell cancer and 20 adjacent tissue specimen were detected with immunohistochemistry. Human nude mouse transplantation tumor model of oral squamous cell cancer was prepared with HSC-3 cells line. Transplanted tumor growth and VEGF expression in transplanted tumor tissues were assayed after treatment with arctigenin. One-way ANOVA was used for comparison between groups with SPSS 16.0 software package. RESULTS: Compared with the adjacent tissue, immunohistochemical staining score of VEGF was significantly higher (P<0.01) in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissues. After treatment with arctigenin, the growth of oral squamous cell transplanted tumors in nude mouse was inhibited (P<0.05), and decreased weight in end point of observation was noted (P<0.05). There were significant differences between high dose group and low dose group (P<0.05). Compared with the nude mouse model group, the optical density of VEGF staining was significantly lower in arctigenin group (P<0.05). There were significant differences between high dose group and low dose group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Arctigenin can dose-dependently inhibit the growth of oral squamous cell carcinomas, and this effect may be related to down regulation of VEGF expression.
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    Cylic stretching force-induced late apoptosis in human periodontal ligament cells
    HAO Yi, LI Jing, MA Jia-yin, LI Jun, XU Chun
    2015, 24 (4):  404-409. 
    Abstract ( 230 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (1115KB) ( 197 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of stretching force on late apoptosis of human periodontal ligament cells. METHODS: HPDLCs were cultured in vitro, and cells were stretched by dynamic mechanical strain 1%, 10% and 20% for 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. Then late apoptosis were detected through TUNEL method binding by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The data was analyzed with SPSS 11.0 software package. RESULTS: HPDCLs inclined parallel to each other and aligned their long axis perpendicular to the stretching force vector. The number of apoptotic cells increased significantly in a time-and force-dependent manner in response to stretching strain within 24 h. CONCLUSIONS: It is found that stretching force can induce apoptosis in HPDLC and show time- and stress-dependent manner with a tendency of increase in 24 h.
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    Construction of luxS gene knockout mutant of Enterococcus faecalis
    HE Zhi-yan, CHENG Lan, WANG Yu-xia, HUANG Zheng-wei
    2015, 24 (4):  410-414. 
    Abstract ( 275 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (795KB) ( 187 )  
    PUPPOSE: To construct quorum sensing luxS knockout mutants of Enterococcus faecalis through homologous recombination. METHODS: The upstream and downstream flank DNA fragments of E. faecalis luxS gene (up, dn) and erythromycin resistance gene (erm) were amplified by PCR. In order to construct recombination plasmid Puemrd, these DNA fragments were inserted into the plasmid pUC18 by corresponding double digests. After allelic exchange, the luxS knockout mutants strains were selected on 30 μg/mL erythromycin plates. RESULTS: With endonuclease reaction and DNA sequencing, it was proved that the objective plasmid, Puemrd, was constructed correctly. The luxS knockout mutants strains were confirmed by PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Enterococcus faecalisluxS gene has been successfully disrupted with homologous recombination. This mutant strain sets a good foundation for further functional study.
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    Study of factors affecting tooth discoloration during fixed orthodontics in vitro
    XU Lin-yu, DONG Min, LU You-guang, LEI Lang
    2015, 24 (4):  415-418. 
    Abstract ( 346 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (540KB) ( 218 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate effects of acid etching, adhesives, brackets and debonding process on tooth color during direct bonding technique. METHODS: One hundred freshly extracted premolars were divided into blank control, acid etching, adhesive, acid etching+adhesive and acid etching+adhesive+bracket group. Computerized colorimeter was utilized to evaluate L*, a* and b* of tooth color parameters before treatment, 7 days and 30 days after treatment. SPSS 16.0 software package was utilized for statistical analysis. RESULTS: At 7 day,ΔE* value in all experimental groups were significantly higher than blank control group. ΔE* values of acid etching+adhesive+bracket group, and acid etching group were greater than 3.3,showing that recognizable clinic change was observed, but no significant difference was observed between the 2 groups. At 30 d, for ΔE* value, acid etching+adhesive+bracket group> acid etching group, and acid etching+adhesive group>adhesive group>blank control group. Recognizable clinic change was observed in all experimental groups (ΔE*>3.3). CONCLUSIONS: In fixed orthodontic procedures, acid etching and metal erosion resulting from long time wearing braces are two important factors leading to enamel discoloration, and adhesives removing procedures may also affect tooth discoloration.
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    Effects of calcium hydroxide and Hoshino’s paste on the proliferation of porcine dental papilla cells
    QIU Si-hui, WANG Jun
    2015, 24 (4):  419-422. 
    Abstract ( 194 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (602KB) ( 255 )  
    PURPOSE: To observe the effects of calcium hydroxide and Hoshino’s paste(a mixture of metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline) on the proliferation of porcine dental papilla cells (pDPCs), and to provide some theoretical basis for the choice of root canal disinfection drugs for pulp revascularization treatment. METHODS: The 4th generation of pDPCs were treated with several concentrations of (10%,1%,0.1%) and Hoshino’s paste (0.5%, 0.1%, 0.05%) medium for certain time periods. CCK-8 assay was performed to detect the effect of the 2 drugs on cell proliferation. SPSS19.0 software package was used for one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: The effect of Ca(OH)2 on pDPCs proliferation was fluctuating, but cell proliferation of each Ca(OH)2 group had no difference after 9 days. Meanwhile, cell proliferation was inhibited by Hoshino’s paste. CONCLUSIONS: Each concentration of in the study has no effect on pDPCs proliferation , while Hoshino’s paste can inhibit cell proliferation.
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    The influence of combined use of rhPDGF-BB and rhTGF-β1 on protein expression of FAK in osteoclast during orthodontic tooth movement in rats
    ZHANG Jiang-tao, MEI Mei, JIANG Ce, FENG Lei, HUANG Jin, WANG Jia-jia
    2015, 24 (4):  423-427. 
    Abstract ( 197 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (1334KB) ( 184 )  
    PURPOSE: To explore the combined effects of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB(rhPDGF-BB)and recombinant human transforming growth factor -β1 (rhTGF-β1) on protein expression of FAK in osteolasts of the pressure side of orthodontic tooth in rats. METHODS: One hundred and sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental group(A) and control group(B). Each group was subdivided equally into 5 subgroups. Orthodontic tooth movement model was established. The experimental group received injection of 0.1 mL solution, containing 10 ng rhPDGF-BB and 5 ng rhTGF-β1 every other day from day 1. Rats in each subgroup were sacrificed at each of five time points(1, 4, 7, 10 and 14 days) after appliance placement. The distances of the teeth movement were measured using stereomicroscope, and the changes of the amount of osteoclasts were detected by using tartrate resistant acid phosphatase histochemistry (TRAP). The protein expressions of FAK were assayed by immunohistochemical technique. SPSS17.0 software package was used for statistics analysis. RESULTS: Teeth in group A moved more rapidly than group B, and there were significant differences between 2 groups (P<0.05) except subgroup A1 and B1(P>0.05). The number of osteoclasts in group A was significantly higher than in group B. Except at 14 days, significant differences existed in between other time points (P<0.05). The protein expression of FAK in group A was significantly higher than in group B at any time points. CONCLUSIONS: The combined effects of rhPDGF-BB and rhTGF-β1 up-regulate the protein expression of FAK within osteoclast in the pressure side, further promoted osteoclast differentiation, proliferation and bone resorption, thusaccelerate the rate of orthodontic tooth movement.
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    Effects of LPS-stimulated monocyte culture supernatant on the OPG/RANKL of osteoblastic cells
    WANG Hai-yan, QIN Hua-xiang, DENG Hui, SUN Chao-fan, HU Rong-dang
    2015, 24 (4):  428-432. 
    Abstract ( 317 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (769KB) ( 232 )  
    PURPOSE:To investigate the influence of Pg-LPS stimulated monocyte (RAW264.7) culture supernatant on the OPG/RANKL expression of osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1). METHODS:The culture supernatant of monocytes stimulated with Pg-LPS was applied to osteoblasts MC3T3-E1 with different diluted concentrations(10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%) simultaneously for 24h, then RT-PCR was used to detect the expression changes of OPG/RANKL mRNA.Western blot was used to detect the expression changes of OPG/RANKL protein. The data was analyzed by ANOVA using SPSS 17.0 software package. RESULTS:After stimulation of different concentrations of inflammatory supernatant, the expressions of OPGmRNA and protein significantly decreased (P<0.05), whereas the expressions of RANKLmRNA and protein significantly increased(P<0.05), both of them were in a concentration-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate that Pg-LPS stimulated RAW264.7 culture supernatant can inhibit the osteogenesis and differentiation of the osteoblasts through inhibiting the expression of OPGmRNA and protein of osteoblastic cells, while increasing the expression of RANKLmRNA and protein in a concentration-dependent manner .
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    The effect of lowered serum levels of estrogen on the expression of ERα, ERβ, OPG and RANKL in rat mandibular condylar cartilage
    LI Zhen-xing, CHEN Chuan-jun
    2015, 24 (4):  437-441. 
    Abstract ( 200 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (915KB) ( 293 )  
    ]PURPOSE: To investigate lowered serum estrogen on the expression of ERα, ERβ, OPG and RANKL of rat condyle and explore the possible mechanisms of idiopathic condylar resorption(ICR). METHODS: Thirty female SD rats were randomly divided into control group, oral contraceptives group and tripterygium glycosides tablets group. The model of lowered serum estrogen level and model of premature ovarian were established by gastric gavage with oral contraceptives pills and tripterygium wilfordii glycosides tablets, respectively. The serum levels of estradiol were detected respectively before experiment and 12 weeks after experiment. After experiment, the expression of ERα, ERβ, OPG and RANKL of condyle were detected by immunohistochemistry technology. SPSS16.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The serum levels of estradiol were significantly decreased in both experimental groups. ERα, ERβ, OPG and RANKL were expressed in the condylar cartilage in all groups, mainly distributed in the hypertrophic cartilage layer. In oral contraceptives group and tripterygium glycosides tablets group, rat condylar ERα, ERβ and OPG expression were decreased and RANKL expression was increased. CONCLUSIONS: The lowered serum estrogen concentrations decrease the expression of ERα, ERβ and OPG, raise the expression of RANKL of condylar cartilage and reduce the proportion of OPG/RANKL. In the lowered serum levels of estrogen, estrogen may mediate condylar cartilage degeneration and the subchondral bone pathological reconstruction through ER pathway by regulating the ratio of OPG/RANKL.
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    In vitro study on the properties of guided bone regeneration of new type chitosan-based thermosensitive hydrogel membranes
    LIANG Jie, CUI Jun, XU Sheng, ZHOU Ti, XU Wei-cheng, XU Xin
    2015, 24 (4):  442-446. 
    Abstract ( 147 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (675KB) ( 228 )  
    PURPOSE:To prepare chitosan/β-glycerophosphate salt (CS/β-GP) thermosensitive hydrogel membranes loaded enamel matrix proteins and detect the guided bone regeneration properties. METHODS:A newly membrane was synthesized using thermal phase inversion property of the CS/β-GP system. The membrane was synthesized and added with protein BSA. The concentration of protein was detected at different time points by enhanced protein assay kit, and the protein release curve was drawn. CS/β -GP membrane added EMPs (1.0 g) as group A, CS/β -GP (1.0 g) membrane as group B and nothing as blank control group (group C). They were co-cultured with ST2 cells. The mechanical properties of the membranes were tested in vitro, and the compatibility properties were detected by MTT method. The activity of ALP was assayed by PNPP method. The data was analyzed by SPSS 16.0 software package. RESULTS:Membranes with different concentration of CS/β -GP could release protein slowly more than 12 days, and the total quantity of the released protein increased with the concentration of the β-GP. The changes of mechanical properties of the membranes were not significant(P>0.05). The OD value of group A, B and C had statistically significant difference in the MTT test. The values of group A and B were higher than that of group C, while the value of group A was higher than that of group B (P<0.05). The activities of ALP were different in the three groups .The activities of group A and B were higher than that of the blank control group(P<0.05).The difference in expression of ALP between group A and B was also statistically significant. The expression in group A was higher than that in group B (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The new type CS/β-GP membrane shows property of guided bone regeneration in vitro, which have the potentials for clinical use.
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    Grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts inhibit lipopolysaccharide of Porphyromonas gingivalis
    CI Xiang-ke, CHEN Li-pei, OU Xiao-yan
    2015, 24 (4):  443-446. 
    Abstract ( 353 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (576KB) ( 294 )  
    PURPOSE: To study the inhibitory effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts on 1ipopolysacharides of Porphyromonas gingivalis. METHODS: Grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts were to different concentrations by dilution. The effect on Porphyromonas gingivalis was measured by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The inhibition effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts on lipopolysaccharide was measured by limulus assay with 6 concentrations below the minimal inhibitory concentration. SPSS 17.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The value of MIC of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts was 0.8 mg/mL to the strains of the experimental bacteria. The inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide enhanced with the increasing of the concentration of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts within the scope of 0.05 to 0.4 mg/mL (P<0.05,0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts have inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide of Porphyromonas gingivalis.
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    Effect of zirconia abutment angulation on stress distribution in the abutment and the bone around implant: a finite element study
    YANG Yan-zhong, TIAN Xiao-hua, ZHOU Yan-min
    2015, 24 (4):  447-450. 
    Abstract ( 164 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (906KB) ( 222 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of three different zirconia angular abutments on the stress distribution in bone and abutment using three-dimensional finite element analysis, and provide instruction for clinical application. METHODS: Finite element analysis (FEA) was applied to analyze the stress distribution of three different zirconia/titanium angular abutments and bone around implant. RESULTS: The maximum Von Minses stress that existed in abutment, bolt and bone of the angular abutment model was significantly higher than that existed in the straight abutment model. The maximum Von Minses stress that existed in abutment, bolt and bone of the 20° angular abutment model was significantly higher than that existed in 15° angular abutment model. There was no significant difference between zirconia abutment model and titanium abutment model. CONCLUSIONS: The abutment angulation has a significant influence on the stress distribution in the abutment, bolt and bone, and exacerbates as the angulation increases, which suggest that we should take more attention to the implant orientation and use straight abutment or little angular abutment. The zirconia abutment can be used safely, and there is no noticeable difference between zirconia abutment and titanium abutment on stress distribution.
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    Influence of different ultrasonic irrigation solutions after root canal preparation with ProTaper by machine on micro-hardness of root canal dentin
    GUO Jiang-li, ZHANG Yan, ZHEN Lei
    2015, 24 (4):  451-454. 
    Abstract ( 230 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (502KB) ( 250 )  
    PURPOSE: To develope the influence of different ultrasonic irrigations after root canal preparation with nickel titanium ProTaper on micro-hardness of root canal dentin. METHODS: Sixty of maxillary anterior teeth with single-canal were collected and randomly divided into 6 groups. Group A was control group, group B was prepared to F3 with nickel titanium ProTaper by machine, group C was ultrasonic irrigated with 3% hydrogen peroxide solution for 1 minute after preparation, group D was ultrasonic irrigated with koutai mouthwash for 1 minute after preparation, group E was ultrasonic irrigated with 17% EDTA solution for 1 minute after preparation, group F was ultrasonic irrigated with distilled water for 1 minute after preparation. The roots were then sectioned horizontally into 3 parts,split longitudinally into halves and examined under a micro Vickers hardness test machine. The data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and t test with SPSS 17.0 software package. RESULTS: The micro-hardness of group A was(52.66±1.64) HV,(52.08±1.53)HV and(51.47±2.53)HV. There was no significant difference in all parts of the root canal in group A(P>0.05). The micro-hardness of the apical third of root canal was lower than that of the cervical and middle of root canal in the other groups (P<0.05). In the cervical and middle third of the root canals, the micro-hardness of group E was(44.65±1.33) HV and(42.55±1.12) HV, and there were statistical significances between group E and the other groups(P<0.05).In the apical third of root canal,the micro-hardness of group E was (37.82±1.60)HV, and group C was (44.14±1.73) HV, both of the comparative differences with other groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). There was no significant difference among group B, group D and group F (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Root canal preparation to F3 with nickel titanium ProTaper by machine can make the micro-hardness of the apical third of root canal decrease. Ultrasonic irrigation with 17% EDTA solution for 1 minute can make the micro-hardness of the root canal decrease ultrasonic irrigation with. Ultrasonic irrigation with 3% hydrogen peroxide can make the micro-hardness of the apical third of root canal decrease. Ultrasonic irrigation with Koutai mouthwash and distilled water for 1 minute have no influence on the micro-hardness of root canal.
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    Clinical study
    Expression and correlation of IL-35 in gingival crevicular fluid and serum with chronic periodontitis
    LIU Di-xin, JIN Ying, LIN Xiao-ping
    2015, 24 (4):  455-459. 
    Abstract ( 293 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (673KB) ( 197 )  
    PURPOSE: To investigate the concentration of IL-35 in serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and the correlation between IL-35 and periodontal clinical parameters, and explore the possible role of IL-35 in chronic periodontitis (CP). METHODS: Twenty patients with moderate or severe chronic periodontitis were selected as experimental group and 20 healthy people were included as control group. The patients’ baseline information, probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded. Their serum and GCF were collected and then the concentration of IL-35 in GCF and serum were detected by ELISA. SPSS19.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The concentration of IL-35 in GCF and serum of chronic periodontitis were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.001). There was significant negative correlation between IL-35 and clinical parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic periodontitis may increase the concentration of IL-35 in serum and GCF; IL-35 level is negatively correlated with periodontitis.
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    Application of three-dimensional virtual technology in mandibular defects reconstruction with free fibular flap
    CHEN Xu-bing, LIU Zhao-gang, YUAN Jian-bing, TIAN Hong-wei
    2015, 24 (4):  460-464. 
    Abstract ( 283 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (1079KB) ( 211 )  
    PURPOSE: To present a method for mandibular defects reconstruction with free fibular flap by three-dimensional virtual technology. METHODS: In 11 patients (8 with ameloblastomas, 1 with ossifying fibroma, 2 with carcinoma of the mandibular gingiva ), three-dimensional virtual technology was simulated with software. The osteotomies were translated into rapid prototyping guides. The solid model of the mandible and the surgical guides were the same as the full size and the shape, and made by using rapid prototyping machine. During operation, the bridging plate could be pre-bended on the repaired mandibular model. One group resected the diseased mandibular according to the model of the osteotomy which was planned before operation, the other group used auxiliary guide for accurate osteotomy of the fibula bone with contact pedicle. The fibular segments were reshaped and fixed with prefabricated titanium plate, and transplanted into the defect for vascular anastomosis. RESULTS:All the bone flaps and osteocutaneous flaps survived. During operation, the fibula flap could be cut in appropriate length. Cutting, remodeling and reposition of the fibula could be accelerated by surgery guides. Postoperative follow-up was 1 to 24 months. Imaging examination showed that the shape of mandible and mandibular angle were good, and the temporomandibular joint and occlusion returned to normal. CONCLUSIONS: Three-dimensional virtual technology is useful in reconstruction of mandibular defect with vascularized fibular flap.
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    The expression and changes of apoptosis protein Bcl-2 and Bax in oral lichen planus
    LI Xiang-ru, GUO Jia, LI Xin-ming
    2015, 24 (4):  465-469. 
    Abstract ( 236 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (1182KB) ( 255 )  
    PURPOSE:To analyze the changes in epithelial cells, and observe the expression of Bcl-2, Bax and apoptosis in oral lichen planus. METHODS: Thirty five OLP patients and 10 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Immunohistochemical S-ABC was used to detect Bcl-2 and Bax expression in OLP group and control group. TUNEL and flow cytometry were used to study the apoptosis of the epithelial cells. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to observe the changes of ultra-microstructure of oral membrane of OLP. The data was analyzed with SPSS 17.0 software package. RESULTS: The expression of Bcl-2 in OLP group was not significantly different from control group (P>0.05), but the expression was remarkably elevated in lymphocyte infiltration zone. Bax positive expression rate and intensity in OLP group significantly increased compared with the control group (P<0.01). The apoptosis index was remarkably increased in the epithelial cells in OLP group compared with the control group (P<0.01), which was consistent with the result of flow cytometry(the apoptotic percentage of the epithelial cells in OLP group was significantly higher than the control group). TEM showed that the apoptotic cells of mucous membrane of OLP increased, with chromatin margination, and apoptotic body. CONCLUSIONS: The ultra-microstructure change in the lesional tissue, increased apoptotic cells, elevated Bcl-2 in lymphocyte infiltration zone and elevated Bax in epithelial basement keratin suggest that apoptosis may be related to the carcinogenesis and development of OLP.
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    Expression of Wnt5a in chronic apical periodontitis and its clinical significance
    XU Li-ya, MA Nan, QIU Li-hong, YU Ya-qiong, ZHONG Ming, YU Jing-tao, XUE Ming
    2015, 24 (4):  470-474. 
    Abstract ( 326 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1673KB) ( 231 )  
    PURPOSE: To detect the expression of Wnt5a in lesions of chronic apical periodontitis and determine the relationship between expression of Wnt5a and inflammation degree. METHODS: Ten patients with chronic apical periodontitis and 5 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. According to the inflammatory cell infiltration, the specimens were divided into 2 groups: severe inflammation group and mild inflammation group. The expression of Wnt5a was measured by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical analysis in the lesions of chronic apical periodontitis. The amount of Wnt5 expression was assayed and compared in different inflammation levels. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0 software package. RESULTS: Wnt5a was detected in both groups. Expression of Wnt5a mRNA in patients were significantly higher than the controls (P<0.05). According to inflammation level, the positive expression rate of Wnt5a in severe inflammation group was significantly higher than the controls (P<0.01), and Wnt5a positive expression in mild inflammation group was also significantly higher than the controls (P<0.05). The expression of Wnt5a was significantly different between severe inflammation group and mild inflammation group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The expression of Wnt5a increases as the severity of tissue inflammation increases , which indicates that Wnt5a plays an important role in the development of chronic apical periodontitis.
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    Correlation between hyperglycemia levels and periodontitis in 545 officeholders in Nantong city
    MEI You-min, ZHOU Yan
    2015, 24 (4):  475-478. 
    Abstract ( 215 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (459KB) ( 179 )  
    PURPOSE: To identify the relationship between hyperglycemia levels and periodontitis by investigating the levels of hyperglycemia and periodontal conditions of officeholders in Nantong city. METHODS: From January 2013 to January 2014, 545 officeholders were randomly selected in Nantong City who underwent physical examination and divided into 2 groups: young of middle-aged adults(≤60 years) and old adults(>60 years). The data was analyzed with Chi-square test and multi-factors logistic regression by using SPSS 16.0 software package. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between blood glucose levels and periodontitis. Multi-factor Logistic regression analysis showed that in the whole population, smoking, age, blood glucose levels were significantly correlated with the degree of periodontitis (P<0.05). Smoking and low level of education were associated with periodontitis in young and middle-aged adults. In old people, blood glucose level more than 7.0 mmol/L and smoking were the risk factors for periodontitis. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperglycemia level is risk factor for periodontitis, which has an effect mainly on old adults.
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    Facial proportions and comparison of the Han and Uygur adult in Xinjiang area
    MENG Kang, ADALET Khasim, YU Xin-wei, GAO Cheng-zhi
    2015, 24 (4):  479-482. 
    Abstract ( 1153 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (466KB) ( 294 )  
    PURPOSE: To explore the vertical and horizontal proportions of the face and difference between the Han and Uygur normal adults in Xinjiang area. METHODS: According to certain standards, the adult Han and Uygur college students in Urumqi City were randomly selected for this study. These students were divided into male and female groups. Frontal photographs were taken for every subject in accordance with same standards. The data was imported into computer, with 20 standard anthropometric marks be determined, and 15 measurements were performed through Photoshop software. Independent sample t test was applied for measuring results by SPSS19.0 software package. RESULTS: The face of males were shorter and wider than that of females. Compared with the females, the males had bigger alar width. However, the Han adults had smaller palpebral fissure and mouth width, bigger alar and intercanthal compared with the Uygur adults. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that there are significant differences between 2 nationalities and sexes in facial proportions in Xinjiang area.
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    The effect of dental health instruction before treatment on anxiety of patients with acute pulpitis
    TANG Yu, DU Rong
    2015, 24 (4):  483-485. 
    Abstract ( 264 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (391KB) ( 202 )  
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of dental health instruction before treatment on dental anxiety of patients with acute pulpitis. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-four patients with acute pulpitis treated in our department from July 2011 to June 2013, and aged from 19 years to 64 years, were selected. They were randomly divided into experimental group and control group. Seventy-eight patients of the experimental group accepted dental health instruction before treatment, while 76 cases in the control group received regular treatment. Two questionaires of dental anxiety were proceeded to both groups respectively before treatment. The data was analyzed for Student’s t test and Chi-square test using SPSS12.0 software package. RESULTS: Dental anxiety (DA) points of the experimental group after dental health instruction were significantly lower than that before treatment (t=4.1346, P<0.01). DA points of the experimental group after dental health instruction were significantly lower than that of the control group (t=6.2784, P< 0.01). The acceptability of the experimental group towards the first treatment was significantly higher than of the control group. The completion rate of the following treatment of the experimental group was also significantly higher than that of the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Dental health instruction to patients with acute pulpitis before treatment are helpful to reduce the pressure and relieve the anxiety during the treatment, so that the patients will complete the first and the following treatment successfully.
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    Clinical Reports
    The application of ultrasonic knife in open submandibular gland surgery
    LIN Hua-wei, LIU Qiang
    2015, 24 (4):  486-488. 
    Abstract ( 304 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (383KB) ( 196 )  
    PURPOSE: To study the value of ultrasonic knife in submandibular gland surgery. METHODS: Randomized controlled clinical trial was adopted. Forty cases collected from October 2013 to July 2014 who underwent submandibular gland surgery were divided into experimental group and control group. All cases were operated by the same surgical team. Ultrasonic knife was used in the experimental group, while electric knife was used in the control group. The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative complications and 24 h and 48 h postoperative drainage volume were recorded and compared between the 2 groups. SPSS 10.0 software package was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in age, gender, mass size and disease type between the 2 groups (P>0.05). With the same operative procedure, there was no significant difference in postoperative complications (P>0.05). Compared with the control group, the operation time, intraoperative blood loss and 24 h and 48 h postoperative drainage volume were significantly decreased in the experimental group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Using ultrasonic knife in submandibular gland surgery is safe and reliable, with distinct advantages over electric knife. The tissue damage is less, and postoperative complications are minimal. It is worth of wide application in oral and maxillofacial surgery.
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    Evaluation of the results of high-speed handpiece and minimally invasive extraction in impacted mandibular third molar extraction
    YANG Ying-yang, DU Sheng-nan, LV Zong-kai
    2015, 24 (4):  489-492. 
    Abstract ( 410 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (653KB) ( 215 )  
    PURPOSE: To compare the results of high-speed handpiece and minimally invasive extraction in impacted mandibular third molar extraction. METHODS: From May 2011 to May 2014, 83 patients undergoing impacted mandibular third molar extraction were enrolled into the study and randomly divided into 2 groups: 42 patients in group A (experimental group) and 41 patients in group B (control group). Group B underwent extraction with traditional method and group A underwent high-speed handpiece and minimally invasive extraction of the impacted mandibular third molar. The occurrences of the root fracture, gingival laceration, tooth mobility, lingual bone plate fracture, jaw fracture and dislocation of temporomandibular joint during operation and lower lip numbness, dry socket, facial swelling and limitation of mouth opening after operation were observed and compared between 2 groups. The operation time, integrity of extraction sockets, VAS pain score and satisfaction from patients were collected and compared. SPSS 19.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The occurrences of root fracture, gingival laceration, tooth mobility, lingual bone plate fracture, jaw fracture, and dislocation of temporomandibular joint during operation in group A significantly decreased compared with group B (P<0.05). The occurrences of lower lip numbness, dry socket, facial swelling and limitation of mouth opening after operation in group A significantly decreased compared with group B (P<0.05). The operation time, integrity of extraction sockets, VAS pain scores and satisfaction scores in group A improved significantly compared with group B (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: High-speed handpiece and minimally invasive extraction should be widely used in impacted mandibular third molar extraction, due to the advantages of simple operation, high efficiency, minimal trauma, and few perioperative complications.
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    Dental Education
    A trial for standardization reform in composite resin restoration teaching
    ZHENG Pei, CHEN Hui
    2015, 24 (4):  493-498. 
    Abstract ( 231 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1104KB) ( 203 )  
    PURPOSE: To establish a standard system of composite resins restoration in dental undergraduate education. METHODS: The modern phantom system was improved. A step-by-step operating manual with large amount of photographs and contents was set up, and multimedia tools were used simultaneously. A set of standardized operative procedures and detailed score evaluation system were established. Questionnaires were used to assess students’ satisfaction in the reform. Then the survey results were statistically analyzed by Fisher exact test with SPSS 18.0 software package. RESULTS: The students’ satisfaction about the education of composite resin restoration were improved (P<0.001). This reform helped to deepen students’ comprehension of the theories and standardize their manipulation. CONCLUSIONS: The establishment of a standardized teaching procedure is beneficial to improve the quality of dental undergraduate education in composite resin restoration.
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    Systematic Review
    Effect of extraction and non-extraction treatment on frontal smiling esthetics: a meta-analysis
    DAI Mei-lu, XIAO Meng, YU Zhe, LIU Dong-xu
    2015, 24 (4):  499-504. 
    Abstract ( 336 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (839KB) ( 342 )  
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of tooth extraction and non-extraction orthodontic treatment on frontal smiling esthetics. METHODS: A literature research was performed using Wanfang database, Chinese Biological Literature database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Scientific Journals Database of VIP, Medline and the Cochrane Library, dating from the establishment of the databases to 31st, August, 2014. Weighted mean difference (WMD) was calculated and meta analysis was performed by Review Manager 5.2. RESULTS: A total of 8 controlled studies were included. The results of meta analysis showed no significant difference between extraction and non-extraction treatment on subjective evaluation of smile esthetics [5.74~7.05 for extraction; 5.53~7.02 for non-extraction; WMD=0.09, 95%CI (-0.28, 0.46), P=0.64], buccal corridor [0.12~0.19 for extraction; 0.11~0.18 for non-extraction; WMD=0.01, 95%CI (-0.00, 0.02), P=0.09], maxillary visual arch width [26.3~52.17 mm for extraction; 25.43~52.37mm for non-extraction; WMD=-0.13, 95%CI (-1.01, 0.75), P=0.77]and smile height [5.7~10.39mm for extraction; 5.4~9.97mm for non-extraction; WMD=0.38, 95%CI (-0.27, 1.03), P=0.25]. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of this meta analysis, it can’t be concluded that extraction treatment could affect the frontal smiling esthetics based on the present clinic evidences. Given the small sample size and the potential heterogeneity, more well-designed prospective studies should be performed in future.
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    Methodological and reporting quality assessment for Chinese systematic reviews and meta analysis in oral medicine
    YANG Shu-liang, YING Kai, WANG Fan, WANG Liang, REN Xuan-yi, YANG Qing-fu
    2015, 24 (4):  505-510. 
    Abstract ( 357 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (884KB) ( 306 )  
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the methodology and reporting quality of Chinese systematic reviews and meta analysis in oral medicine. METHODS: Chinese literatures of systematic reviews and meta analysis in oral medicine were searched in the CBM, VIP, WANFANG Database and CNKI from the establishment date to August 30, 2014. Two researchers screened and evaluated the data independently, and disagreements were resolved by discussion. Methodology and reporting quality of included literatures were evaluated by AMSTAR and PRISMA scale. RESULTS: Of the 204 literatures included in the analysis,the highest and lowest scores of methodology quality were 9 and 0, respectively. The average score was 4.95±2.45. The main problems were insufficient in literature searching, absence of a list of included and excluded studies, lack of assessment for publication bias, etc. The highest and lowest scores of reporting quality were 21 and 4, and the average score of reporting quality was 14.07±3.62. The main problems were incomplete report in abstract, data collection and analysis methods, bias control, conclusion, etc. CONCLUSIONS: The methodological qualities of Chinese systematic reviews and meta analysis in oral medicine are generally low, and their reporting qualities are also needed to be improved.
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    Case Reports
    Multiple pulp stones: report of a case and literature review
    FENG Xiao-jie, LUO Xin, LI Ren, DONG Wei, QI Meng-chun
    2015, 24 (4):  511-512. 
    Abstract ( 260 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (397KB) ( 219 )  
    [Summary] Pulp stones were denaturation of pulp tissue, which were usually found in the pulp chamber. Generally, they were associated with caries and pulposis, and the occurrence of pulp stone increased with age. Pulp stones were frequently found by radiographic examination, and appeared as radiopaque lesions which were round or ovoid in shape. We reported an unusual case of multiple pulp stones with normal clinical crowns in a young female patient and analyzed the possible etiology.
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